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Gender Verification in Sport XX??XY?? XXXY??XO/XY?? Becky Beaton Melinda MacLean Paul Kovalske Crystal Kennedy Jen Hughes Outline Gender verification entering sport world effected women explanation on intersexuals effected intersexuals Explanation on "trans" terms
entering sport world
Explanation on "trans" terms
Transexuals enter the
veiws of gender roles
1920's - Sex reasignment
Mildred Ella Didrikson
Was discovered to have male genitalia at autopsy after she was killed in a shooting
Was discovered to have male genitalia after the European Championships. The German Athletic Federation then banned her from competing in women’s sports.
Both underwent genital surgery, and somehow one of them became a father.
1932- Stella Walsh
1938- Dora Retjen
1946 (shortly after) - Claire Bresolles and Lean Caula
USED INVASIVE METHODS
card which contained a
photograph and statement that
she had passed the
chromosome sex test
Barr Bodies =
Gynecological exams and
Buccal smear testing =
An intersexual is a person (or individual of any unisexual species) who is born with genitalia and/or secondary sexual characteristics of indeterminate sex, or which combine features of both sexes
Possible Genetic Combos:
XO, XXY, XO/XY, XYY, XX male and XY Female.
Maria Jose Martinez Patino
Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome:
develop either partially or fully as females, due to their bodies failing to respond to testosterone.
- Normal Female External Organs and breasts at puberty.
- Will NOT develop a uterus or Fallopian Tubes.
- NO Menstruation.
• Partial Androgen Insensitivity (PAIS):
- Reduced sensitivity compared to male ‘normal’.
- Individuals can develop male or female or a combination of both external anatomy.
5-Alpha Reductase Deficiency:
- Female internal anatomy.
- Male or ambiguous external anatomy
- Will develop Male secondary sexual characteristics.
• Progestin-Induced Virilisation:
- Male hormones caused by use of drug Progestin.
- Internal and External Female anatomy.
- Will develop some Male secondary sexual characteristics.
All Ineligible were Intersexuals!!!.....
Results of Sex Verification Testing...
Only male individual in history
to pass off as female
“It is outrageous on so many levels, I hardly know where to begin. First there is the tacit sexism that implies no woman would ever try to pass her self off as a man but a men would try to pass themselves off as women, because the competition would be so much easier. Second, its very presence suggests that if a woman is a great athlete, she may not really be a woman. Her femininity is suspect. And last, there is the incorrect scientific assumption that having a Y chromosome is and off itself, gives a person athletic advantage.”
-member of the IAAF work
group on gender verification
The 1998 Amsterdam Games required competitors who had changed their birth gender to the opposite gender to provide proof
The 2000 Sydney Games tried dividing competitions into 2 divisions: “male” or “female”. Where everyone including transgender and intersex athletes had to choose a category to compete in, based on the passport or birth certificate gender
Personal Identity NOT Sexual Desire
“It has taken a considerable amount of time to finalize the gender policy document and we are convinced that we have a document that is fair to all”- Andy Salmon, chief executive of the LGU
Identity = Genetics =
Transexual Tennis Player
Transexual Mountain Biker
Stated that if sex reassignment before puberty:
-Male to Female = Girls or Women (Female)
-Female to Male = Boys or Men (Male)
∙ Stated that if sex reassignment after puberty:
May participate in reassigned sex category
IF THE FOLLOWING CONDITIONS ARE MET:
“It is important that all society, including sports organizations, recognize that gender development is not always clear cut. The only appropriate way to assign to one or the other sex is to allow them to choose for themselves. It is equally important that this minority not be discriminated against. It is possible of course (but not established) that the accompanying hormonal imbalances in some of these [‘disorders’] might prove athletic advantage. However, people are not equal in athletic prowess in regard to height, weight, coordination, or any other parameters, and it follows that this is just another way in which athletes will not be equal.”
- cheif editor of the Harrison's Principle of
internal Medicine (1992)
Do you think it is fair to include intersexuals and transsexuals in athletic competition???