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Exam 1 Review. Exam Thursday Please bring answer sheet. Important topics and some review questions. Review. All Those Variables!. Confused?? So am I Let’s get them straightened out. Independent. Dependent. Classification. Stimulus. Extraneous. Response. What?. Mediating.

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exam 1 review

Exam 1 Review

Exam Thursday

Please bring answer sheet

Important topics and some review questions

review
Review

All Those Variables!

  • Confused??
    • So am I
  • Let’s get them straightened out

Independent

Dependent

Classification

Stimulus

Extraneous

Response

What?

Mediating

Organismic

Moderating

Confounding

variables variables variables
Variables, Variables, Variables
  • Independent = manipulated
  • Dependent = measured (or observed)
  • Classification = existing categories
    • Really a dependent variable
    • Treated like an independent variable
  • Extraneous = relevant but ignored
  • Stimulus, Response, Organismic
    • Don’t worry about them!
correlational research
Correlational Research

(and Observational Research)

  • We measure or observe Dependent variables
  • We ignore the Extraneous variables
    • But they may influence the results
    • If so, and if they affect both the variables involved in a correlation, then they are …
  • Confounding variables
    • i.e., they make it impossible to explain the correlation
correlational research and observational research
Correlational Research(and Observational Research)
  • Confounding variables
    • might explain observed relationships among dependent variables
    • So we look to see if they are …
  • Mediating variables!
    • We can test for the effect of mediating variables, but to do so …
    • we need to measure them, so now they are …
  • Dependent variables

Aaargh!

correlational research and observational research6
Correlational Research(and Observational Research)
  • Mediating variables
    • are Extraneous variables at first
    • are Confounding variables as well
    • and, when measured, become Dependent variables
    • but they are not the same as …
  • Moderator variables
    • which change the observed relationships among other dependent variables
still confused this may help

What?

Still Confused?This may help:

Whether or not a variable is a confounding variable is not under your control

Whether or not a variable is a mediating variable is not under your control – although you can find out

Whether or not a variable is an extraneous variable is under your control – you can measure it

Thus, you can find out if an extraneous variable is a mediating variable by measuring it

rationalism and empiricism
Rationalism and Empiricism
  • Why are empiricism and rationalism both important in developing scientific theories?
sample question 1
Sample Question 1

Which of the following statements would be made by a scientist who is using rationalist principles?

(a) “I don’t believe in ESP because there are no data to show that it occurs reliably”

(b) “I don’t believe in ESP because it’s inconsistent with everything else we know about perception”

(c) “I don’t believe in ESP because it violates my religious and moral beliefs”

sample question 111
Sample Question 1

How do we know what we know?

Empiricism: Through observation

Rationalism: Through logical consistency

with other things we know

Which of the following statements would be made by a scientist who is using rationalist principles?

(a) “I don’t believe in ESP because there are no data to show that it occurs reliably”

(b) “I don’t believe in ESP because it’s inconsistent with everything else we know about perception”

(c) “I don’t believe in ESP because it violates my religious and moral beliefs”

models
Models
  • Why do we use models?
  • What do we look for in a model?
sample question 2
Sample Question 2

Which of the following models would be most useful to a psychologist who is studying social judgment?

(a) A model of social judgment that can explain any results the psychologist might find

(b) A model of social judgment that makes predictions that turn out to be wrong occasionally

sample question 214
Sample Question 2

Which of the following models would be most useful to a psychologist who is studying social judgment?

(a) A model of social judgment that can explain any results the psychologist might find

(b) A model of social judgment that makes predictions that turn out to be wrong occasionally

Models must be testable

They don’t have to be perfect

variables
Variables
  • What are independent variables and dependent variables? How do classification variables fit into this distinction?
  • How do you identify possible extraneous variables? Why are they important?
sample question 3
Sample Question 3

Dr Glidden performed an experiment to study the effects of noise. She want to find out if it would interfere with problem solving more for skilled problem solvers than for poor problem solvers? What kind of variable is “skilled versus poor problem solver”?

(a) Dependent

(b) Independent

  • Classification
  • Extraneous
sample question 317
Sample Question 3

Dr Glidden performed an experiment to study the effects of noise. She want to find out if it would interfere with problem solving more for skilled problem solvers than for poor problem solvers? What kind of variable is “skilled versus poor problem solver”?

(a) Dependent

(b) Independent

  • Classification
  • Extraneous

Dependent = measured: the effect

Independent = manipulated: the cause

Classification = non-manipulated,

but not an effect either

scales of measurement
Scales of Measurement
  • What properties of the number system are relevant to measurement?
  • What can we do with interval scales that we can’t do with ordinal scales?
  • How do we know if we have an interval scale or not?
sample question 4
Sample Question 4

I’m fixing dinner for Albert and Brenda. Albert rank orders his preferences: Steak, Fish, Pizza, Chicken. Brenda rank orders them Pizza, Fish, Steak, Chicken. What can I conclude?

(a) On the average, steak and fish are equivalent

(b) I’d better not fix chicken

sample question 420
Sample Question 4

I’m fixing dinner for Albert and Brenda. Albert rank orders his preferences: Steak, Fish, Pizza, Chicken. Brenda rank orders them Pizza, Fish, Steak, Chicken. What can I conclude?

(a) On the average, steak and fish are equivalent

(b) I’d better not fix chicken

Ordinal scales give information about order

Calculating averages requires an interval scale

sample question 5
Sample Question 5

For assignment 2 you used trustworthiness judgments, then calculated correlation coefficients, which are based on means and variances. Was this legitimate?

(a) No – we only had an ordinal scale

(b) Yes –trustworthiness was measured on an interval scale

(c) Maybe, we don’t know for sure

sample question 522
Sample Question 5

For assignment 2 you used trustworthiness judgments, then calculated correlation coefficients, which are based on means and variances. Was this legitimate?

(a) No – we only had an ordinal scale

(b) Yes –trustworthiness was measured on an interval scale

(c) Maybe, we don’t know for sure

We rarely know for sure. We proceed

anyway; if our theories are supported

we probably have an interval scale

operational definitions
Operational Definitions
  • Why are operational definitions important?
  • What makes a definition operational?
sample question 6
Sample Question 6

Charlie is studying social adjustment in young children. Which is the least like an operational definition of social adjustment?

(a) A child’s understanding of other children’s feelings

(b) Teachers’ ratings of a child’s social adjustment

(c) A child’s score on a test of social adjustment

sample question 625
Sample Question 6

Operational definitions

should tell you what to do

Charlie is studying social adjustment in young children. Which is the least like an operation definition of social adjustment?

(a) A child’s understanding of other children’s feelings

(b) Teachers’ ratings of a child’s social adjustment

(c) A child’s score on a test of social adjustment

sample question 7
Sample Question 7

Dan defines “Love for person X” as an increase in pulse rate in the presence of X. Deidre defines “Love for person X” as a person’s response on a rating scale when asked how much he or she experiences love for X. How should we settle this disagreement?

(a) Only Dan’s definition is operational

(b) Only Deidre’s definition is operational

(c) We should find out how Love-per-Dan and Love-per-Deidre are related, if at all

sample question 727
Sample Question 7

Dan defines “Love for person X” as an increase in pulse rate in the presence of X. Deidre defines “Love for person X” as a person’s response on a rating scale when asked how much he or she experiences love for X. How should we settle this disagreement?

(a) Only Dan’s definition is acceptable

(b) Only Deidre’s definition is acceptable

(c) We should find out how Love-per-Dan and Love-per-Deidre are related, if at all

They are both operational

Let’s find out if they are the same thing

If they are we have convergent validity

low constraint research
Low Constraint Research
  • When is it appropriate?
  • What are its limitations?
sample question 8
Sample Question 8

For which of the following topics would low constraint research be most suitable?

(a) Compare two methods for teaching statistics

(b) Find out if training in conflict resolution reduces aggression in teenagers

(c) Find variables related to dating behavior that might be worth studying further

sample question 830
Sample Question 8

For which of the following topics would low constraint research be most suitable?

(a) Compare two methods for teaching statistics

(b) Find out if training in conflict resolution reduces aggression in teenagers

(c) Find variables related to dating behavior that might be worth studying further

Use low constraint research

for exploration

sampling issues
Sampling Issues
  • Why is sampling a concern in research?
  • What are the major sampling issues in low constraint research?
sample question 9
Sample Question 9

Desdemona is interested in the dynamics of family interactions. She spends hours watching the families that eat at a popular restaurant that is frequented by almost everyone in town. Which sampling issue is probably of least concern in this case?

(a) Participants

(b) Situations

(c) Behaviors

sample question 933
Sample Question 9

Desdemona is interested in the dynamics of family interactions. She spends hours watching the families that eat at a popular restaurant that is frequented by almost everyone in town. Which sampling issue is probably of least concern in this case?

(a) Participants

(b) Situations

(c) Behaviors

Plenty of participants in this case,

but all three of these are important

confounding
Confounding
  • Why is confounding a major concern in low constraint research?
  • How can one reduce the problems of confounding in low constraint research?
sample question 10
Sample Question 10

In her study, Desdemona observed that expressions of anger by parents are more common in larger families. It would be reasonable to conclude that, if you are the parent of a large family who takes your kids to a restaurant, _____

(a) it’s better to take them a few at a time

(b) you can expect to express anger more often than parents of small families

(c) Both conclusions are reasonable

(d) Neither conclusion is reasonable

sample question 1036
Sample Question 10

In her study, Desdemona observed that expressions of anger by parents are more common in larger families. It would be reasonable to conclude that, if you are the parent of a large family who takes your kids to a restaurant, _____

(a) it’s better to take them a few at a time

(b) you can expect to express anger more often than parents of small families

(c) Both conclusions are reasonable

(d) Neither conclusion is reasonable

Prediction is OK

Causal inference is not

differential research
Differential Research
  • What is the purpose of differential research?
  • What kind of conclusions can one draw from differential research?
sample question 11
Sample Question 11

Eric counted children’s use of pronouns in a classroom. He found that tenth graders use the word “We” a lot, fifth graders use it rarely. He concluded that between fifth and tenth grade children acquire an understanding of social groups. What is not a problem with his conclusion?

(a) He may be over-generalizing his results

(b) Cohort effects may influence the results

(c) He has no operational definition for “pronoun”

(d) There may be several confounding variables

sample question 1139
Sample Question 11

Eric counted children’s use of pronouns in a classroom. He found that tenth graders use the word “We” a lot, fifth graders use it rarely. He concluded that between fifth and tenth grade children acquire an understanding of social groups. What is not a problem with his conclusion?

(a) He may be over-generalizing his results

(b) Cohort effects may influence the results

(c) He has no operational definition for “pronoun”

(d) There may be several confounding variables

He counted “we”s. But he

ignored the potential confounding

correlations
Correlations

What kind of conclusions can one draw from correlational research ?

How should one interpret the numerical value of a correlation?

sample question 12
Sample Question 12

Fiona studied recreational runners, and found a correlation of 0.5 between number of injuries and time spent stretching. Which of the following conclusions is appropriate?

(a) Stretching prevents injuries

(b) Stretching makes injuries worse

(c) Having an injury makes people want to stretch more

(d) Stretching can explain one quarter of the variance in running injuries

sample question 1242
Sample Question 12

Fiona studied recreational runners, and found a correlation of 0.5 between number of injuries and time spent stretching. Which of the following conclusions is appropriate?

(a) Stretching prevents injuries

(b) Stretching makes injuries worse

(c) Having an injury makes people want to stretch more

(d) Stretching can explain one quarter of the variance in running injuries

Prediction is assessed by r2

Causal inference is out

Look for other explanations!

mediating variables
Mediating Variables

What is a mediating variable?

How is it related to confounding?

How do we test for the effects of a mediating variable?

sample question 13
Sample Question 13

A study found a large negative correlation between fidgeting and obesity. The correlation of fidgeting and obesity, partialing out amount of exercise, was almost zero. Which of the following statements is appropriate?

(a) Exercise mediates the relationship between fidgeting and obesity

(b) Fidgeting and obesity mediate the effects of exercise

(c) People who don’t exercise should try fidgeting to lose weight

sample question 1345
Sample Question 13

A study found a large negative correlation between fidgeting and obesity. The correlation of fidgeting and obesity, partialing out amount of exercise, was almost zero. Which of the following statements is appropriate?

(a) Exercise mediates the relationship between fidgeting and obesity

(b) Fidgeting and obesity mediate the effects of exercise

(c) People who don’t exercise should try fidgeting to lose weight

Exercise accounts for the

original correlation

sample question 14
Sample Question 14

A study of college students found a positive correlation between GPA and depression in women. However, there was no correlation between GPA and depression in men. In this study sex appears to be _____

(a) a mediating variable

(b) a moderator variable

(c) an extraneous variable

(d) a confounding variable

sample question 1447
Sample Question 14

A study of college students found a positive correlation between GPA and depression in women. However, there was no correlation between GPA and depression in men. In this study sex appears to be _____

(a) a mediating variable

(b) a moderator variable

(c) an extraneous variable

(d) a confounding variable

The correlation changes

as a function of sex

slide49
Dr. McKenzie surveyed alcohol use on campus and found that students with lower GPAs engage in more binge drinking than students with higher GPAs. Which (if any) of the following conclusions is reasonable?

(a) Excessive binge drinking contributes to poorer academic performance

(b) Binge drinking is a common reaction to poor academic performance

(c) Both are OK

(d) Neither is OK

slide50
Dr. McKenzie surveyed alcohol use on campus and found that students with lower GPAs engage in more binge drinking than students with higher GPAs. Which (if any) of the following conclusions is reasonable?

(a) Excessive binge drinking contributes to poorer academic performance

(b) Binge drinking is a common reaction to poor academic performance

(c) Both are OK

(d) Neither is OK

Both imply causal explanations

slide51
Dr. McKenzie surveyed alcohol use on campus and found that students with lower GPAs engage in more binge drinking than students with higher GPAs. Which (if any) of the following conclusions is reasonable?

(a) Better academic counseling would be an effective way to reduce binge drinking

(b) The students most likely to engage in binge drinking are those doing poorly in school

(c) Both are OK

(d) Neither is OK

slide52

A prediction, not an explanation

Dr. McKenzie surveyed alcohol use on campus and found that students with lower GPAs engage in more binge drinking than students with higher GPAs. Which (if any) of the following conclusions is reasonable?

(a) Better academic counseling would be an effective way to reduce binge drinking

(b) The students most likely to engage in binge drinking are those doing poorly in school

(c) Both are OK

(d) Neither is OK

slide53
In a study of shoppers at a clothing store, Dr. Westberg found a negative correlation between the amount of money that customers spend and the amount of time the clerk spends chatting with them. Which (if any) of the following conclusions is reasonable?

(a) People could be made to spend more if the clerks would resist chatting with them

(b) Store clerks would rather spend time chatting with customers who spend a lot

(c) Both are OK

(d) Neither is OK

slide54
In a study of shoppers at a clothing store, Dr. Westberg found a negative correlation between the amount of money that customers spend and the amount of time the clerk spends chatting with them. Which (if any) of the following conclusions is reasonable?

(a) People could be made to spend more if the clerks would resist chatting with them

(b) Store clerks would rather spend time chatting with customers who spend a lot

(c) Both are OK

(d) Neither is OK

Causal explanations

slide55
In a study of shoppers at a clothing store, Dr. Westberg found a negative correlation between the amount of money that customers spend and the amount of time the clerk spends chatting with them. Which (if any) of the following conclusions is reasonable?

(a) The more money a customer spends, the more time the clerk spends chatting with them

(b) The more money a customer spends, the less time the clerk spends chatting with them

(c) Both are OK

(d) Neither is OK

slide56
In a study of shoppers at a clothing store, Dr. Westberg found a negative correlation between the amount of money that customers spend and the amount of time the clerk spends chatting with them. Which (if any) of the following conclusions is reasonable?

(a) The more money a customer spends, the more time the clerk spends chatting with them

(b) The more money a customer spends, the less time the clerk spends chatting with them

(c) Both are OK

(d) Neither is OK

Both are predictions, but

it’s a negative correlation

slide58
1. Dr. Courtney wanted to study employee satisfaction in clerical jobs. She talked to secretarial employees at a law firm during their lunch hour, asking them about the work related factors that they find most distressing. Over several weeks, Dr. Courtney found that employees spent most of their time complaining about their boss. She concluded that relationships with the supervisor are the most important factor in determining employee satisfaction.
slide59
3. Dr. Cokely wanted to find out if SAT test scores are related to performance in college, so he found a dozen students, all of whom have very high SAT scores. He discovered that their GPAs varied widely, and that the correlation of SAT score with GPA was essentially zero. He concluded that SAT scores are unrelated to college performance.
slide60
4. In an observational study of school children, Dr. Shoemaker noted that most cases of bullying were initiated by children whose parents never showed any interest in their child's achievements in school. She suggested, therefore, that it would be worthwhile testing the hypothesis that parents involvement in their child's education contributes in an important way to the child's social development.
slide61
5. Dr. Greenfield, a clinical psychologist in private practice, interviewed four clients who were suffering from depression. He found that all four tended to see other people (including Dr. Greenfield) as very disapproving of them. Dr. Greenfield suggested that people with psychological disorders are unable to identify accurately the emotions of people with whom they interact.
slide62
8. Dr. Wylie has just completed a study of young children in a kindergarten. By the end of the school year, she noted that most of the children were spending far more time playing with others, and much less time playing alone. She concluded that the social development of children is enhanced by the kindergarten experience - that kindergarten helps them to learn social skills faster.