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The construction of global tourism spaces

The construction of global tourism spaces

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The construction of global tourism spaces

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  1. Theconstruction of global tourism spaces

  2. The spaces of flows Global travel spaces: Airports Airline cabins Transit lounges Hotels Non-places?

  3. Daniel Boorstin: The lost art of travel “nothing to see but the weather...” “I had flown not through space but time” . “Passage through space unnoticeable...robbed of landscape” “Each Hilton hotel is indistinguishable...‘a little America’ ...you have the comforting feeling of not being there” “don’t know where you are unless you look out window Placeless mobility

  4. American tourism frontier modernity • Modernization theory • Spatialization of modernity • Mobility = agent of modernity • American tourist=> modernization • Travel spaces connecting “places”

  5. globalizing modernity local tradition

  6. US: Building the postwar global tourism economy • Eliminating boundaries • The Marshall Plan and tourism to Europe • International airlines and tourist fares • The jet plane revolution

  7. Time-space compression “crossing global distances and connecting places”

  8. global travel spaces:the spectacle of mobility

  9. Eero Saarinen’s TWA terminal at JFK airport, New York (1961)

  10. “a place of movement and transition”

  11. “as if inside a flying machine”

  12. Dulles Airport, Washington DC

  13. mobile lounges -The airport as a machine of movement -Designed to efficiently move travelers from entrance to planes

  14. LAX “Themed Building”

  15. Making (American) tourism global • Cold War: modernization efforts in the ‘Third World’ • Tourism: agent of econ. development • US hotel and airline companies expand globally

  16. At the “frontier of modernity” • Modern international hotel in Istanbul: “a little American” • A product of the Cold War (1955)

  17. Modernist architectural design: • Aesthetized technological efficiency • Stands out from landscape at the territorial frontier of modernity, but • A dematerialized (not an enclave) • plate glass, transparent form... • Open form, no private spaces • a “machine for viewing” at the frontier of modernity • a model of modernity, a map of the future Drawn from Annabel Jane Wharton’s Building the Cold war: Hilton International Hotels and Modern Architecture.

  18. At the frontier:American/global modernityframes the traditional/ local

  19. Global transformations: 1960s-1970s • Economic expansion of Europe and Japan • The end of the “dollar standard” Vietnam War/Third Worldism/1968 • Failures of modernization theory • The crisis of Fordism/flex. prod., oil shocks • => retrenchment and the relative decline of US hegemony

  20. End of the global tourism frontier • Most of the globe accessible to mass tourism • 1968: US seeks to limit travel abroad • “The ugly American” • Ecological/cultural impact of mass tourism • End of tourism promotion as development • Airline hijackings, Airline deregulation • Intl. Tourism=> staged, commoditified, enclave

  21. Globalization: 1980s-1990s • A new vehicle for expansion of US power: neoliberalism, market reform, privatization.. • The end of the cold war • Free markets, not modernization • Developing world integrated into global markets • Promoting the deterritorialization of capitalism

  22. The transformation of tourism • More reflexive tourists • New frontiers=> new market segments: ecotourism, adventure tourism,... • “Places” as products: cities, theme parks • Tourism as consumerism • Americanization no longer = modernization and shifting frontier

  23. Collapsing global travel spaces • “the end of territorial distance” • No territorial frontier of tourism • Places as products • Consumerism rather than mobility defines tourism • Ex. consuming “places”

  24. “Americanization” deterritorialized => ...while international tourism becomes a theme for tourism in the US A McDonald’s in Saudi Arabia Paris Hotel, Las Vegas Luxor Hotel, Las Vegas

  25. Travel spaces become places • Because of increased mobility, the experience of traveling is no longer about crossing territory • Global tourism spaces no longer defined by territorial mobility • Travel “democratized” and routine • => Hotels and airports remake themselves as destinations

  26. Hotels as destinations • “post-modern” architecture: The Bonaventure Hotel => • New styles of luxury hotels

  27. Shopping at Schiphol airport, Amsterdam The new culture of airports • “epicenters of post-nationalism” • Shopping malls-with-planes • Themed airports • Airport cities • Growth poles Working at an airport café Denver Airport: a “locational” theme

  28. The encounter lounge Retro-themeing LAX

  29. Post-9/11 travel spaces New American discourse: • Airplanes as weapons • American tourists as targets • Foreign tourists as terrorists • 30% drop tourism=>US • Global mobility = threat • Towards spaces of security

  30. American spaces abroad “The new $83 million U. S. consulate outside Istanbul satisfies important security concerns but also seems a remote crusader castle.” --US report on Public Diplomacy “...looks like a maximum security prison” --Tom Friedman

  31. Possibilities for a cosmopolitan tourism? • “the ambiguous effects of speed” --William E. Connolly • Places matter, but not as measures of modernity, closed political identities, or objects of consumption • Pluralization within territories more critical than mobility or localization • Global travel as means towards hybridization between “places” • Mobility only one means to connect pluralized locations, but not a means to impose transformation/modernization