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Core Concepts of Management Schermerhorn. Prepared by Cheryl Wyrick California State Polytechnic University Pomona John Wiley & Sons, Inc. COPYRIGHT.

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core concepts of management schermerhorn

Core Concepts of ManagementSchermerhorn

Prepared by

Cheryl Wyrick

California State Polytechnic University Pomona

John Wiley & Sons, Inc

Schermerhorn - Chapter 3

copyright

COPYRIGHT

Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that named in Section 117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the express written consent of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for further information should be addressed to the Permission Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her owner use only and not for distribution or resale. The Publisher assumes no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages, cause by the use of these programs or from the use of the information contained herein.

Schermerhorn - Chapter 3

chapter 3 globalization and international management
Chapter 3Globalization and International Management
  • Planning Ahead
    • What are the processes of globalization?
    • What is the environment of international business?
    • How does culture create global diversity?
    • How do management practices transfer across cultures?

Schermerhorn - Chapter 3

processes of globalization
Processes of Globalization
  • The New Europe
    • European Union (EU)
      • grouping of European countries who agreed to support mutual economic growth
      • 11 of these countries have agreed to adopt the Euro (common currency)

Schermerhorn - Chapter 3

processes of globalization5
Processes of Globalization
  • The Americas
    • North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
      • Agreement for free flow of goods and services between the U.S., Canada and Mexico
    • Free Trade of the Americas (FTAA) is a possibility
    • Other agreements
      • MERCOSUR
      • Andrean Pact
      • CARICOM

Schermerhorn - Chapter 3

processes of globalization6
Processes of Globalization
  • Maquiladoras
    • foreign manufacturing plants allowed to operate in Mexico
      • allowed special privileges in exchange for hiring Mexican labor
        • import materials, components and equipment with duty paid on “value added”

Schermerhorn - Chapter 3

processes of globalization7
Processes of Globalization
  • Maquiladoras
    • advantages
      • increased employment and prosperity
    • disadvantages
      • social costs in border towns
      • exploitation of less expensive Mexican labor

Schermerhorn - Chapter 3

processes of globalization8
Processes of Globalization
  • Asia and the Pacific Rim
    • Asia and Pacific Rim economies are expected to be larger than those of the EU
    • China is the world’s largest single-country marketplace
    • Japanese companies account for many Fortune 500 companies

Schermerhorn - Chapter 3

processes of globalization9
Processes of Globalization
  • Africa
    • beckons international business
    • increased attention to stable countries

Schermerhorn - Chapter 3

environment of international business
Environment of International Business
  • Forms of International Business
    • Global Sourcing
      • manufacturing and/or purchasing components worldwide and assembling them into a final product

Schermerhorn - Chapter 3

environment of international business11
Environment of International Business
  • Forms of International Business
    • Exporting
      • selling locally made products in foreign markets
    • Importing
      • buying foreign made products and selling them in domestic markets

Schermerhorn - Chapter 3

environment of international business12
Environment of International Business
  • Forms of International Business
    • Licensing Agreement
      • pay a fee to acquire the rights to sell another company’s products
      • franchising is form of licensing

Schermerhorn - Chapter 3

environment of international business13
Environment of International Business
  • Forms of International Business
    • Direct Investment Strategies
      • joint ventures
      • strategic alliances
      • wholly owned subsidiary

Schermerhorn - Chapter 3

multinational corporations
Multinational Corporations
  • Multinational Corporation (MNC)
    • business with extensive international operations in more than one country

Schermerhorn - Chapter 3

multinational corporations15
Multinational Corporations
  • Advantages of MNCs
    • larger tax bases
    • increased employment opportunities
    • technology transfers
    • introduction of new industries
    • development of local resources

Schermerhorn - Chapter 3

multinational corporations16
Multinational Corporations
  • Disadvantages of MNCs
    • extract excessive profits
    • dominate local economy
    • do not respect local customs and laws
    • fail to help domestic firms develop
    • do not transfer most advanced technology

Schermerhorn - Chapter 3

pros and cons of global operations
Pros and Cons of Global Operations
  • Ethical Issues in Multinational Operations
    • Foreign Corrupt Practices Act
    • Sweatshops
    • Environmental protection

Schermerhorn - Chapter 3

culture and global diversity
Culture and Global Diversity
  • Culture
    • shared set of beliefs, values and patterns of behavior common to a group of people

Schermerhorn - Chapter 3

culture and global diversity19
Culture and Global Diversity
  • Ethnocentrism
    • tendency to view one’s own culture as superior to others

Schermerhorn - Chapter 3

culture and global diversity20
Culture and Global Diversity
  • Silent Language
    • Culture shock
      • discomfort a person feels in an unfamiliar culture

Schermerhorn - Chapter 3

culture and global diversity21
Culture and Global Diversity
  • Spoken Language
    • Low-context
      • explicit spoken and written word
      • examples: US, Germany
    • High-context
      • words convey only part of the message
      • examples: Middle East, Asia

Schermerhorn - Chapter 3

culture and global diversity22
Culture and Global Diversity
  • Use of Space (Proxemics)
    • interpersonal distance used in communication
      • Latin Americans tend to be close
      • Americans value more space

Schermerhorn - Chapter 3

culture and global diversity23
Culture and Global Diversity
  • Time Orientation
    • Monochronic
      • time is allotted do one thing at a time
    • Polychronic
      • time is allotted to do many things at once

Schermerhorn - Chapter 3

culture and global diversity24
Culture and Global Diversity
  • Religion
    • may influence business practices
    • source of ethical and moral teaching

Schermerhorn - Chapter 3

culture and global diversity25
Culture and Global Diversity
  • Role of Contracts
    • some cultures view as final and binding
    • others view as a starting point
    • some expect contracts to be written
    • others accept “word” as binding

Schermerhorn - Chapter 3

culture and global diversity26
Culture and Global Diversity
  • Values and National Cultures (Hofstede)
    • Power distance
    • Uncertainty avoidance
    • Individualism-collectivism
    • Masculinity-femininity
    • Short-term - long-term orientation

Schermerhorn - Chapter 3

culture and global diversity27
Culture and Global Diversity
  • Understanding Cultural Differences
    • Relationships with People
      • universalism vs. particularism
      • individualism vs. collectivism
      • neutral vs. affective
      • specific vs.diffuse
      • achievement vs. prescription

Schermerhorn - Chapter 3

culture and global diversity28
Culture and Global Diversity
  • Understanding Cultural Differences
    • Attitudes toward time
      • sequential
      • synchronic

Schermerhorn - Chapter 3

culture and global diversity29
Culture and Global Diversity
  • Understanding Cultural Differences
    • Attitudes toward environment
      • inner-directed
      • outer-directed

Schermerhorn - Chapter 3

management across cultures
Management Across Cultures
  • Comparative Management
    • how management systematically differs from one country and/or culture to the next
      • global manager
        • someone comfortable with cultural diversity
        • quick to find opportunity in unfamiliar settings

Schermerhorn - Chapter 3

culture and global diversity31
Culture and Global Diversity
  • Are Management Theories Universal?
    • U.S. management theories may be ethnocentric
      • emphasis on participation and individual performance are not applicable to other cultures

Schermerhorn - Chapter 3

culture and global diversity32
Culture and Global Diversity
  • Are Management Theories Universal?
    • Japanese management practices
      • lifetime employment
      • job rotation and broad career experience
      • shared information
      • collective decision-making
      • quality emphasis
    • These practices are not easy to translate

Schermerhorn - Chapter 3

culture and global diversity33
Culture and Global Diversity
  • Global Organizational Learning
    • cultural awareness facilitates more informed transfers of management practices

Schermerhorn - Chapter 3