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COMENIUS Almonds and Coffee The almond Along the road of silk between Asia and the Mediterranean, explorers discovered almonds. The almond trees are essentially cultivated in the areas surrounding the Mediterranean such as Italy and Spain.

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the almond
The almond

Along the road of silk between Asiaand the Mediterranean, explorers discovered almonds. The almond trees are essentially cultivated in the areas surrounding the Mediterranean such as Italy and Spain.

In the beginning the climatic conditions did not make it possible to obtain a high benefit. But in the 19th century It became increasingly productive. In the 1970’s the researchers developed the main varieties cultivated in the USA ( Carmel and Mountery). The almonds have been keeping their religious ethnic and social significances all over the centuries. At the time of marriages, baptisms it’s usual to offer sugared almonds in tulles to symbolize joy, good health and fortune.

almond crunchings
Almond crunchings

Since the 17 th century, almond crunchings have been famous all around the Mediterranean countries. Based on almonds sugar and egg whites, one initially called them the " couques.

Preparation: 60g of sugar, 150g of flour, 60g of crushed almonds, ½ sachet of yeast,1 pinch of salt. Mix and incorporate the eggs in order to obtain a homogenuous paste. Add crushed almonds. Preheat the oven( temperature 7 ). Shape the paste into rolls. Approximate cooking: 15mns. Cut them into small pieces. Cook them again for 5 mns.

crujientes de almendras

Recipe: 6 eggs, 150 g of sugar, 200 g almond powder a zest of lemon, a pinch cinnamon powder, butter for the mould. Separate the egg whites from the yolks. Mix the yolks with sugar, almonds the zest lemon and cinnamon. delicately incorporate them in the paste. Pour it in a buttered mould. Cooking: 45mns

Let cold before unmoulding.


In 1858, Antonio Mattei opened his activity of production of the "biscotti di Prato«  in Prato, an Italian city located in Tuscany close to Florence.

Since then, the recipe has been transmitted from generation to generation. The biscotti di Prato are always prepared in the same way and at the same place: 22 via Ricasoli ( Prato).

Preparation: 1 egg 120 G of sugar 1 spoon of brandy or another flavour (Grand-Marnier...) liquid vanilla soup a sachet of vanilla sugar, 145 G of flour,yeast coffee cinnamon, salt ,50 G of roasted sliced almonds.


Recipe: For 8 people --- Cooking: 30 minutes 250 gr. flour, 75 gr. of almond powder 125 gr. of butter, yeast , 600g sugar, water, ½ lemon zest, The almonds, hazel nuts, poppy seeds. Put sugar, water and some lemon juice in a pan, boil it for 4-5 minutes. Then mix flour, sugar , eggs, butter, yeast, almond powder and lemon zest in order to obtain a homogeneous paste. Divide the paste into small pieces. put them on a buttered plate, garnish with nuts, almonds. Cooking: 30 min. Out of the oven, dip them into honey.


The history of coffee has been recorded as far back as the ninth century. During that time, coffee beans were available only in their native habitat, Ethiopia, but, when the Arab world began expanding its trade horizons, the beans moved into northern Africa and were mass-cultivated. From there, the beans entered the Indian and European markets, and the popularity of the beverage spread.

The word "coffee" entered English in 1598 via Italian caffè. This word was created via Turkishkahve, which in turn came into being via Arabicqahwa. This last is a word of uncertain etymology, which can mean both "coffee" and "wine".

There are several legendary accounts of the origin of the drink itself. One account involves the Yemenite Sufi mystic Shaikh ash-Shadhili. When traveling in Ethiopia, the legend goes, he observed goats of unusual vitality, and, upon trying the berries that the goats had been eating, experienced the same vitality. A similar myth attributes the discovery of coffee to an Ethiopian goatherder named Kaldi.

One possible origin of both the beverage and the name is the Kingdom of Kaffa in Ethiopia, where the coffee plant originated (its name there is bunn or bunna).

french coffee
French coffee

The French coffee drinks

  • Café : is plain coffee with nothing added, but is strong as it is brewed like espresso.
  • Café au lait : is a popular French coffee style that has been popularized in America. In France, this is simply coffee with steamed milk, and it's almost always wonderful. You will sometimes get the coffee served in one pot or in the cup, and then a pitcher of steamed milk to pour in as you please.
  • Café crème : is, as it sounds, coffee served in a large cup with hot cream.
  • Café Décafféiné : is decaffeinated coffee. You will still need to tell them you want milk (lait) or cream (crème) with your coffee.
  • Café Noisette : is espresso with a dash of cream in it. It is called "noisette," French for hazelnut, because of the rich, dark color of the coffee.
  • Café Americain : is filtered coffee, similar to traditional American coffee.
  • Café Léger : is espresso with double the water.
spanish caf
Spanish "Café"

Coffee is drunk in Spain in great quantities. Cafe solo is served in small cups and is a black coffee, very strong and thick. Cafe con leche is coffee with milk.

When the Spanish order a coffee in the morning, they appear to be speaking on code. It's never just 'coffee' (or 'café' in Spanish). These are the terms you're going to have to get to grips with if you want to keep your head above water in a Spanish 'cafeteria.

  • Café solo Espresso, the standard form of coffee in Spain - if you want lots of water in it you could ask for it to be added (con agua caliente) but you might get laughed at.
  • Café con leche Espresso with milk added. The most popular form of coffee in Spain.
  • Cafe cortado Espresso with a drop of milk.
  • Cafe manchado A little coffee and a lot of milk. More like coffee flavored milk than a proper coffee.
  • Café descafeinado Decaff coffee. You can ask for it from the machine (de maquina or from a sachet (de sobre.
  • Café con hielo An espresso and a glass of ice. You're supposed to pour the espresso over the ice, but I wouldn't recommend it.
italian caff expresso
Italian «caffè» "Expresso"
  • Espresso, caffè normale, cappuccino; sometimes it seems that there are as many types of coffee in Italy as there are pastas. And just like pasta, Italian coffee is an art form with many customs and traditions. Whether it's a caffè corretto thrown back like a shot, a cappuccino and brioche for breakfast, or a granita di caffè con panna to cool off from the hot midday sun, in Italy there is a coffee drink specific for every time and mood.
  • °caffè Americano—American-style coffee, but stronger; weaker than espresso and served in a large cup
  • caffè corretto—coffee "corrected" with a shot of grappa, cognac, or other spirit
  • caffè doppio—double espresso
  • caffè freddo—iced coffee
  • caffè Hag—decaffeinated coffee
  • caffè latte—hot milk mixed with coffee and served in a glass for breakfast
  • caffè macchiato—espresso "stained" with a drop of steamed milk: small version of a cappuccino
  • caffè marocchino—espresso with a dash of hot milk and cacao powder
  • caffè stretto—espresso with less water; rocket fuel!
  • caffè (espresso)—a small cup of very strong coffee, i.e., espresso
  • cappuccino—espresso infused with steamed milk and drunk in the morning, but never after lunch or dinner
  • granita di caffè con panna—frozen, iced beverage (similar to a slush, but ice shavings make it authentic) and topped with whipped cream
turkish coffee
Turkish coffee

Derived from the Arabic bean, Turkish coffee is a very fine, powder-like grind. An aromatic spice called cardamom is sometimes added to the coffee while it is being ground. One can also boil whole seeds of cardamom with the coffee and let them float to the top when served.

Turkish coffee has three levels of sweetness ranging from very sweet to black. Since sugar is not added to the coffee after it is served, spoons are not needed. As the coffee begins to heat, it begins to foam. A rule of the Turkish coffee ceremony dictates that if there is no foam in the coffee, the coffee was not well-done.Turkish coffee is served hot from a special coffee pot called a cezve. Tradition states that after the guest has consumed the coffee, the cup is turned upside down on the saucer and allowed to cool, the hostess then performs a fortune reading from the coffee grounds remaining in the cup. Rich in tradition and flavor, Turkish coffee remains a traditional drink in Turkey today.


Réalisé par :



ORENGA Ophélie

Classe : 1PSC