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Chapter 5 Supporting I/O Devices You Will Learn… How to install peripheral I/O devices How to use ports and expansion slots for add-on devices About keyboards and how to troubleshoot them About different types of pointing devices

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chapter 5

Chapter 5

Supporting I/O Devices

you will learn
You Will Learn…
  • How to install peripheral I/O devices
  • How to use ports and expansion slots for add-on devices
  • About keyboards and how to troubleshoot them
  • About different types of pointing devices
  • How monitors and video cards relate to the system, and how to troubleshoot them
basic principles of peripheral installations
Basic Principles of Peripheral Installations
  • Peripheral is a hardware device controlled by software; must install both hardware and software
  • Software might be of different types; you must install all levels
  • More than one peripheral device might attempt to use same computer resources (IRQ, DMA channel, I/O addresses, or [for 16-bit drivers] upper memory addresses)
a review of system resources
A Review of System Resources
  • An IRQ is a line on a bus that serves as an interrupt request line and is assigned to a device
  • Each device needs a group of I/O addresses the CPU will use to get the attention of the device and communicate with it
  • Older device drivers and BIOS written in real mode require some upper memory addresses 640K-1024K
  • Some devices require a DMA channel to speed up data transfer across the bus


a review of system resources5
A Review of System Resources
  • System resources are assigned at startup
  • PnP devices do not request specific I/O addresses, DMA channels, or IRQs, but use those assigned by BIOS and OS
  • Legacy devices are not PnP and require special memory resources
  • Sometimes a bus controller is assigned a single set of resources for all devices using the bus
installation overview for an add on device
Installation Overview for an Add-on Device
  • Install device (internal or external)
  • Install device driver
  • Install application software
internal devices
Internal Devices
  • Drives (eg, hard, floppy, CD-ROM, DVD, Zip)
  • Devices that are inserted in expansion slots on the motherboard
  • Advantages
    • Less expensive than external devices
    • Don’t take up desk space
external devices
External Devices
  • Use existing port (eg, serial, parallel, USB, IEEE 1394)
  • Use port provided by interface card installed in expansion slot
  • Advantage
    • Can be moved easily from one computer to another
purchasing a hardware device
Purchasing a Hardware Device
  • Have basic knowledge of your system
    • CPU, system bus, and local bus drive
    • Memory
    • Hard drive size
    • OS and version
    • Space available on hard drive
    • For internal devices: how many drives, bays, or expansion slots are available
purchasing a hardware device11
Purchasing a Hardware Device
  • Plug and Play?
  • Offers features you want?
  • Documentation easy to read and comprehensive?
  • Manufacturer’s Web site offer help and technical support?
  • Warranty?
  • Compatible with current hardware and software?
installing a hardware device
Installing a Hardware Device
  • Use antistatic bracelet and ground mat
  • Unplug the PC and remove case cover
  • Locate the slot and remove faceplate
  • Insert expansion card in expansion slot
  • Insert screw that connects card to case
  • Replace case cover, power cord, and peripherals
  • Plug in the device
  • Reboot the PC; install device drivers
  • Test device
using ports and expansion slots for add on devices
Using Ports and Expansion Slots for Add-on Devices
  • Serial ports
  • Parallel ports
  • USB ports
  • IEEE 1394 ports
  • Expansion slots
using serial ports
Using Serial Ports
  • Transmit data in single bits
  • Almost always male
  • Intended for input and output devices
  • Configurable for COM1, COM2, COM3, or COM4
  • Port assignments are made in CMOS setup
  • Conforms to standard interface called RS-232c
  • Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) and Data Communications Equipment (DCE) designations
null modem connection
Null Modem Connection
  • Special cable (null modem cable or modem eliminator) enables data transmission between two DTE devices without the need for modems
infrared transceivers
Infrared Transceivers
  • Use resources of a serial port for communication
  • Create a virtual infrared serial port and virtual infrared port for infrared devices
  • Sometimes motherboard provides 5-pin connection for its own proprietary IrDA-compliant infrared transceiver
  • Industry is moving away from infrared and toward other wireless technologies because of line-of-sight issue
the universal asynchronous receiver transmitter uart chip
The Universal Asynchronous Receiver-Transmitter (UART) Chip
  • Controls all nine pins of a serial port
  • Establishes communications protocol
  • Converts parallel data bits coming from the system bus into serial bits for transmission
  • Converts incoming serial data bits it receives into parallel form needed by the system bus
  • UART 16550 driver is built into all Windows operating systems
using parallel ports
Using Parallel Ports
  • Transmit data in parallel, eight bits at a time
  • Almost always female
  • Originally intended for printers; now also used for input devices
  • Cable should be no longer than 10 feet to avoid loss of integrity of data
  • Can be configured as LPT1, LPT2, or LPT3
  • Port assignments are made in CMOS setup
types of parallel ports
Types of Parallel Ports
  • Standard parallel port (SPP)
    • Allows data to flow in only one direction
    • Slowest of the three types
  • Enhanced Parallel Port (EPP)
    • Bi-directional
  • Extended Capabilities Port (ECP)
    • Bi-directional
using usb ports
Using USB Ports
  • Designed to make installation of slow peripheral devices as effortless as possible
  • Much faster than regular serial ports
  • Use higher-quality cabling with four wires—two for power and two for communication
  • Easier to manage; eliminate need to manually resolve resource conflicts


using usb ports32
Using USB Ports
  • Allow for hot-swapping and are hot-pluggable
  • Most current motherboards have one to four USB ports
  • Managed by a USB host controller
  • As many as 127 USB devices can be daisy changed together using USB devices
installing a usb device
Installing a USB Device
  • Requirements
    • Motherboard or expansion card that provides a USB port
    • OS that supports USB
    • USB device
    • USB device driver
  • Use Device Manager to verify that USB host controller is installed
using ieee 1394 ports
Using IEEE 1394 Ports
  • Provides either a 4-pin or 6-pin connector
  • Uses only one set of system resources
  • Uses isochronous data transfer
  • Is hot-pluggable
using pci expansion slots
Using PCI Expansion Slots
  • PCI bus runs in sync with CPU
  • PCI controller manages system resources for all PCI cards
  • Use Device Manager to determine which IRQ has been assigned to a PCI device
  • PCI bus IRQ steering can help solve problem of not having enough IRQs to support all devices
mca and eisa buses
MCA and EISA Buses
  • Microchannel Architecture (MCA) bus
    • First 32-bit bus for PCs
  • EISA (Extended ISA) bus
    • Designed to compete with MCA bus
using isa expansion slots
Using ISA Expansion Slots
  • Configuration is not automated
  • ISA bus does not manage system resources, as do USB and PCI bus masters
  • ISA device must request system resources at startup
installing legacy hardware
Installing Legacy Hardware
  • Solving problems with legacy hardware
  • Solving problems with legacy drivers
  • Technologies in the way the keys make contact
    • Foil contact
    • Metal contact
keyboard connectors
Keyboard Connectors
  • PS/2 connector
  • DIN connector
  • USB port
  • Wireless connection
    • Requires a driver
troubleshooting keyboards
Troubleshooting Keyboards
  • A few keys don’t work
  • Keyboard does not work at all
  • Key continues to repeat after being released
  • Keys produce wrong characters
  • Major spills on keyboard
how a mouse connects to the computer
How a Mouse Connectsto the Computer
  • Serial port
  • Dedicated round mouse port
  • Mouse bus card
  • USB port
  • Y-connection with the keyboard
  • Cordless technology
other pointing devices
Other Pointing Devices
  • Trackballs
  • Touch pads
troubleshooting a mouse
Troubleshooting a Mouse
  • Check mouse port connection
  • Try new mouse
  • Uninstall and reinstall mouse driver; reboot PC
  • Reboot PC and select logged option from startup menu to create Bootlog.exe file; continue to boot and check log for errors
computer video
Computer Video
  • Monitors
  • Video cards
  • Rated by screen size, resolution, refresh rate, and interlace features
  • Most meet standards for Super VGA
  • Use CRT (cathode-ray tube) or LCD (liquid crystal display) technology
  • Install dual monitors to increase size of Windows desktop
kinds of lcd panels
Kinds of LCD Panels
  • Active-matrix
  • Dual-scan passive matrix
video cards
Video Cards
  • Main features to look for:
    • Bus it uses
    • Amount of video RAM it has or can support
  • Buses used by video cards:
    • VESA bus
    • PCI bus
    • AGP bus
types of video memory
Types of Video Memory
  • WRAM (window RAM)
  • SGRAM (synchronous graphics RAM)
  • 3-D RAM
troubleshooting video problems
Power light (LED) does not go on; no picture

Power LED light is on; no picture on power-up

Power on, but monitor displays wrong characters

Monitor flickers and/or has wavy lines

No graphics display or screen goes blank when loading certain programs

Troubleshooting Video Problems


troubleshooting video problems72
Troubleshooting Video Problems
  • Screen goes blank 30 seconds or one minute after keyboard is left untouched
  • Poor quality color display
  • Picture out of focus or out of adjustment
  • Crackling sound
troubleshooting video problems73
Troubleshooting Video Problems
  • Configuring or changing monitor settings and drivers in Windows 9x
  • Changing video driver configuration
  • Returning to standard VGA settings
chapter summary
Chapter Summary
  • Procedures and guidelines common to most installations
  • How to use serial, parallel, USB, and IEEE 1394 ports, and expansion slots
  • Essential I/O devices for a PC:
    • Keyboard
    • Mouse
    • Video