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Chapter 5 Supporting I/O Devices You Will Learn… How to install peripheral I/O devices How to use ports and expansion slots for add-on devices About keyboards and how to troubleshoot them About different types of pointing devices

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Chapter 5 l.jpg

Chapter 5

Supporting I/O Devices

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You Will Learn…

  • How to install peripheral I/O devices

  • How to use ports and expansion slots for add-on devices

  • About keyboards and how to troubleshoot them

  • About different types of pointing devices

  • How monitors and video cards relate to the system, and how to troubleshoot them

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Basic Principles of Peripheral Installations

  • Peripheral is a hardware device controlled by software; must install both hardware and software

  • Software might be of different types; you must install all levels

  • More than one peripheral device might attempt to use same computer resources (IRQ, DMA channel, I/O addresses, or [for 16-bit drivers] upper memory addresses)

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A Review of System Resources

  • An IRQ is a line on a bus that serves as an interrupt request line and is assigned to a device

  • Each device needs a group of I/O addresses the CPU will use to get the attention of the device and communicate with it

  • Older device drivers and BIOS written in real mode require some upper memory addresses 640K-1024K

  • Some devices require a DMA channel to speed up data transfer across the bus


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A Review of System Resources

  • System resources are assigned at startup

  • PnP devices do not request specific I/O addresses, DMA channels, or IRQs, but use those assigned by BIOS and OS

  • Legacy devices are not PnP and require special memory resources

  • Sometimes a bus controller is assigned a single set of resources for all devices using the bus

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Installation Overview for an Add-on Device

  • Install device (internal or external)

  • Install device driver

  • Install application software

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Internal Devices

  • Drives (eg, hard, floppy, CD-ROM, DVD, Zip)

  • Devices that are inserted in expansion slots on the motherboard

  • Advantages

    • Less expensive than external devices

    • Don’t take up desk space

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External Devices

  • Use existing port (eg, serial, parallel, USB, IEEE 1394)

  • Use port provided by interface card installed in expansion slot

  • Advantage

    • Can be moved easily from one computer to another

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Purchasing a Hardware Device

  • Have basic knowledge of your system

    • CPU, system bus, and local bus drive

    • Memory

    • Hard drive size

    • OS and version

    • Space available on hard drive

    • For internal devices: how many drives, bays, or expansion slots are available

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Purchasing a Hardware Device

  • Plug and Play?

  • Offers features you want?

  • Documentation easy to read and comprehensive?

  • Manufacturer’s Web site offer help and technical support?

  • Warranty?

  • Compatible with current hardware and software?

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Installing a Hardware Device

  • Use antistatic bracelet and ground mat

  • Unplug the PC and remove case cover

  • Locate the slot and remove faceplate

  • Insert expansion card in expansion slot

  • Insert screw that connects card to case

  • Replace case cover, power cord, and peripherals

  • Plug in the device

  • Reboot the PC; install device drivers

  • Test device

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Using Ports and Expansion Slots for Add-on Devices

  • Serial ports

  • Parallel ports

  • USB ports

  • IEEE 1394 ports

  • Expansion slots

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Using Serial Ports

  • Transmit data in single bits

  • Almost always male

  • Intended for input and output devices

  • Configurable for COM1, COM2, COM3, or COM4

  • Port assignments are made in CMOS setup

  • Conforms to standard interface called RS-232c

  • Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) and Data Communications Equipment (DCE) designations

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Null Modem Connection

  • Special cable (null modem cable or modem eliminator) enables data transmission between two DTE devices without the need for modems

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Infrared Transceivers

  • Use resources of a serial port for communication

  • Create a virtual infrared serial port and virtual infrared port for infrared devices

  • Sometimes motherboard provides 5-pin connection for its own proprietary IrDA-compliant infrared transceiver

  • Industry is moving away from infrared and toward other wireless technologies because of line-of-sight issue

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The Universal Asynchronous Receiver-Transmitter (UART) Chip

  • Controls all nine pins of a serial port

  • Establishes communications protocol

  • Converts parallel data bits coming from the system bus into serial bits for transmission

  • Converts incoming serial data bits it receives into parallel form needed by the system bus

  • UART 16550 driver is built into all Windows operating systems

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Using Parallel Ports

  • Transmit data in parallel, eight bits at a time

  • Almost always female

  • Originally intended for printers; now also used for input devices

  • Cable should be no longer than 10 feet to avoid loss of integrity of data

  • Can be configured as LPT1, LPT2, or LPT3

  • Port assignments are made in CMOS setup

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Types of Parallel Ports

  • Standard parallel port (SPP)

    • Allows data to flow in only one direction

    • Slowest of the three types

  • Enhanced Parallel Port (EPP)

    • Bi-directional

  • Extended Capabilities Port (ECP)

    • Bi-directional

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Using USB Ports

  • Designed to make installation of slow peripheral devices as effortless as possible

  • Much faster than regular serial ports

  • Use higher-quality cabling with four wires—two for power and two for communication

  • Easier to manage; eliminate need to manually resolve resource conflicts


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Using USB Ports

  • Allow for hot-swapping and are hot-pluggable

  • Most current motherboards have one to four USB ports

  • Managed by a USB host controller

  • As many as 127 USB devices can be daisy changed together using USB devices

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Installing a USB Device

  • Requirements

    • Motherboard or expansion card that provides a USB port

    • OS that supports USB

    • USB device

    • USB device driver

  • Use Device Manager to verify that USB host controller is installed

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Using IEEE 1394 Ports

  • Provides either a 4-pin or 6-pin connector

  • Uses only one set of system resources

  • Uses isochronous data transfer

  • Is hot-pluggable

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Using PCI Expansion Slots

  • PCI bus runs in sync with CPU

  • PCI controller manages system resources for all PCI cards

  • Use Device Manager to determine which IRQ has been assigned to a PCI device

  • PCI bus IRQ steering can help solve problem of not having enough IRQs to support all devices

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MCA and EISA Buses

  • Microchannel Architecture (MCA) bus

    • First 32-bit bus for PCs

  • EISA (Extended ISA) bus

    • Designed to compete with MCA bus

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Using ISA Expansion Slots

  • Configuration is not automated

  • ISA bus does not manage system resources, as do USB and PCI bus masters

  • ISA device must request system resources at startup

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Installing Legacy Hardware

  • Solving problems with legacy hardware

  • Solving problems with legacy drivers

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  • Technologies in the way the keys make contact

    • Foil contact

    • Metal contact

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Keyboard Connectors

  • PS/2 connector

  • DIN connector

  • USB port

  • Wireless connection

    • Requires a driver

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Troubleshooting Keyboards

  • A few keys don’t work

  • Keyboard does not work at all

  • Key continues to repeat after being released

  • Keys produce wrong characters

  • Major spills on keyboard

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How a Mouse Connectsto the Computer

  • Serial port

  • Dedicated round mouse port

  • Mouse bus card

  • USB port

  • Y-connection with the keyboard

  • Cordless technology

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Other Pointing Devices

  • Trackballs

  • Touch pads

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Troubleshooting a Mouse

  • Check mouse port connection

  • Try new mouse

  • Uninstall and reinstall mouse driver; reboot PC

  • Reboot PC and select logged option from startup menu to create Bootlog.exe file; continue to boot and check log for errors

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Computer Video

  • Monitors

  • Video cards

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  • Rated by screen size, resolution, refresh rate, and interlace features

  • Most meet standards for Super VGA

  • Use CRT (cathode-ray tube) or LCD (liquid crystal display) technology

  • Install dual monitors to increase size of Windows desktop

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Kinds of LCD Panels

  • Active-matrix

  • Dual-scan passive matrix

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Video Cards

  • Main features to look for:

    • Bus it uses

    • Amount of video RAM it has or can support

  • Buses used by video cards:

    • VESA bus

    • PCI bus

    • AGP bus

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Types of Video Memory

  • WRAM (window RAM)

  • SGRAM (synchronous graphics RAM)

  • 3-D RAM

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Power light (LED) does not go on; no picture

Power LED light is on; no picture on power-up

Power on, but monitor displays wrong characters

Monitor flickers and/or has wavy lines

No graphics display or screen goes blank when loading certain programs

Troubleshooting Video Problems


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Troubleshooting Video Problems

  • Screen goes blank 30 seconds or one minute after keyboard is left untouched

  • Poor quality color display

  • Picture out of focus or out of adjustment

  • Crackling sound

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Troubleshooting Video Problems

  • Configuring or changing monitor settings and drivers in Windows 9x

  • Changing video driver configuration

  • Returning to standard VGA settings

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Chapter Summary

  • Procedures and guidelines common to most installations

  • How to use serial, parallel, USB, and IEEE 1394 ports, and expansion slots

  • Essential I/O devices for a PC:

    • Keyboard

    • Mouse

    • Video