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BONES OF LOWER EXTREMITY. Pelvis. The pelvis is composed of three bones: Ilium Ischium Pubis. Pelvis: Lateral Surface. Acetabular fossa: For articulation with head of femur. Lunate surface. Acetabular notch. Acetabular labrum: Fibrocartilage rim around edge of acetabulum.

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pelvis
Pelvis
  • The pelvis is composed of three bones:

Ilium

Ischium

Pubis

pelvis lateral surface
Pelvis: Lateral Surface
  • Acetabular fossa:

For articulation with head of femur.

Lunate surface.

  • Acetabular notch.
  • Acetabular labrum:

Fibrocartilage rim around edge of acetabulum.

pelvis lateral surface5
Pelvis: Lateral Surface
  • Obturator foramen:

Covered by membrane.

Passage for obturator nerve and vessels.

pelvis lateral surface7
Pelvis: Lateral Surface
  • Ischial ramus.
  • Pubic rami:

Superior.

Inferior.

  • Pubic tubercle:

Attachment for inguinal ligament.

pelvis anterior edge
Pelvis: Anterior Edge
  • Anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS)

Attachment of inguinal ligament.

Proximal attachment for:

Sartorius muscle.

  • Figure 3.3.
pelvis anterior edge10
Pelvis: Anterior Edge
  • Anterior inferior iliac spine (AIIS):

Proximal attachment for:

Straight head of rectus femoris.

pelvis posterior edge
Pelvis: Posterior Edge
  • Posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS).
  • Posterior inferior iliac spine (PIIS).
  • Greater sciatic notch:

Converted into superior and inferior parts by piriformis muscle.

pelvis posterior edge12
Pelvis: Posterior Edge
  • Lesser sciatic notch.
  • Ischial spine.
  • Ischial tuberosity.
pelvis posterior ligaments
Pelvis: Posterior Ligaments
  • Posterior sacrospinous ligaments.
  • Sacrotuberous ligaments.
  • Sacrospinous ligaments.
  • Figure 3.3.
pelvis medial surface
Pelvis: Medial Surface
  • Iliac fossa:

Attachment surface for iliacus muscle.

  • Arcuate line.
  • Auricular surface:

Articulates with auricular surface of sacrum.

  • Pubic symphysis.
sacrum
Sacrum
  • Consists of 5 fused vertebrae.
  • Wing-like processes of each vertebra = alae:

For attachment to ilium.

  • Lip of body of first sacral vertebra = sacral promontory.
sacrum17
Sacrum
  • Posterior crests (Fig. 4.5):

Median crest:

Fused spinous processes.

Intermediate crests:

Fused articular (zygopophyseal) processes.

Lateral crests:

Fused transverse processes.

  • Sacral hiatus.
femur proximal anterior
Femur: Proximal Anterior
  • Head.
  • Neck.
  • Greater trochanter.
  • Lesser trochanter.
  • Intertrochanteric line:

Low ridge connecting two trochanters.

femur proximal posterior
Femur: Proximal Posterior
  • Head.
  • Neck.
  • Greater trochanter.
  • Lesser trochanter:

Projects backwards and medially.

femur proximal posterior23
Femur: Proximal Posterior
  • Intertrochanteric ridge:

High ridge connecting two trochanters.

Has quadrate tubercle:

Partial site of attachment for quadratus femoris muscle.

femur distal anterior
Femur: Distal Anterior
  • Medial and lateral condyles.
  • Medial and lateral epicondyles.
  • Patellar surface:

Smooth, crescent surface between condyles.

  • Adductor tubercle:

Small bump on medial epicondyle.

Site of partial attachment of adductor magnus.

femur distal posterior
Femur: Distal Posterior
  • Medial and lateral condyles.
  • Medial and lateral epicondyles.
  • Popliteal surface:

Smooth, triangular surface superior to condyles.

  • Intercondylar fossa:

Forms part of posterior boundary of popliteal fossa.

femur posterior surface
Femur: Posterior Surface
  • Linea aspera

Lateral boundary:

Is a continuation of:

Gluteal tuberosity.

Inferiorly becomes:

Lateral supracondylar line.

Medial boundary:

Is a continuation of:

Pectineal line.

Inferiorly becomes:

Medial supracondylar line.

tibia anterior proximal
Tibia: Anterior Proximal
  • Medial and lateral condyles.
  • Tuberosity.
  • Tubercles of intercondylar eminence.
tibia posterior proximal
Tibia: Posterior Proximal
  • Medial and lateral condyles.
  • Tubercles of intercondylar eminence.
  • Articular facet for fibula:

On inferior surface of lateral condyle.

Soleal line:

Shallow, rough ridge curving down from lateral condyle.

tibia distal
Tibia: Distal
  • Anterior distal surface:

Medial malleolus.

  • Lateral distal surface:

Fibular notch.

fibula
Fibula
  • Lies lateral to tibia.
  • Function:

Involved in ankle joint.

Muscle attachment.

  • Proximal end:

Head.

Apex (styloid process).

Articular surface (facet) for lateral condyle of tibia.

fibula35
Fibula
  • Distal end:

Lateral malleolus:

With articular surface for talus.

  • Note:

Both tibia and fibula have interosseous borders:

Face each other when the two bones are articulated.

Site of attachment of interosseous membrane.