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Biomes (6-3). Different climates lend to differing organisms & vegetations Due to . . . Pptn., temp., soil type. Tropic of Cancer. Equator. Tropic of Capricorn. Semidesert, arid grassland. Arctic tundra (polar grasslands). Desert. Boreal forest (taiga), evergreen coniferous

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biomes 6 3
Biomes (6-3)
  • Different climates lend to differing organisms & vegetations
    • Due to . . .
      • Pptn., temp., soil type
slide3

Tropic of

Cancer

Equator

Tropic of

Capricorn

Semidesert,

arid grassland

Arctic tundra (polar grasslands)

Desert

Boreal forest (taiga), evergreen coniferous

forest (e.g., montane coniferous forest)

Tropical rain forest,

tropical evergreen forest

Mountains

(complex zonation)

Temperate deciduous forest

Tropical deciduous forest

Ice

Temperate grassland

Tropical scrub forest

Dry woodlands and

shrublands (chaparral)

Tropical savanna,

thorn forest

major biomes
Artic tundra

Boreal forest (taiga); evergreen coniferous

Temperate deciduous forest

Temperate grassland

Dry woodlands & shrublands (chaparral)

Desert

Tropical rain forest, tropical evergreen forest

Tropical deciduous forest

Tropical scrub forest

Tropical savanna, thorn forest

Semidesert, arid grassland

Mountains

Major biomes
slide5

Altitude

Mountain

Ice and snow

Tundra (herbs,

lichens,

mosses)

Coniferous

Forest

Latitude

Deciduous

Forest

Tropical

Forest

Tropical

Forest

Deciduous

Forest

Coniferous

Forest

Tundra (herbs,

lichens, mosses)

Polar ice

and snow

slide6

Tropical desert

(Saudi Arabia)

slide7

Temperate desert

(Reno, Nevada)

slide8

Polar desert

(northwest China)

slide10

Temperate grassland

(Lawrence, Kansas)

slide12

Tropical rain forest

(Manaus, Brazil)

slide13

Temperate deciduous forest

(Nashville, Tennessee)

slide14

Polar evergreen coniferous forest

(boreal forest, taiga)

(Moscow, Russia)

desert
Little ppt./vegetation

Tropical; temperate; polar

Cover 30% of Earth

Desert
slide16

Agave

Agave

Prickly

pear

cactus

Prickly

pear

cactus

Roadrunner

Roadrunner

Diamondback rattlesnake

Diamondback rattlesnake

Darkling

beetle

Darkling

beetle

Bacteria

Bacteria

Kangaroo rat

Kangaroo rat

Red-tailed hawk

Producer

to primary

consumer

Gambel's

quail

Primary

to secondary

consumer

Yucca

Jack

rabbit

Collared

lizard

Secondary to

higher-level

consumer

All producers and

consumers to

decomposers

Fungi

slide17
Tropical

Hot/dry most of year

Few plants, rocks, sand

Temperate

High day temps in summer; low temps in winter

More rain than tropical

Drought resistant; widely spaced plants

Cold deserts

Cold winters; warm summers; low rainfall

Semi-desert

Between desert & grassland

Thorn trees; shrubs; brief heavy rain

survival techniques in deserts
Drop leaves

No leaves, store water in fleshy tissue

Open pores for gas @ night

Long tap roots

Thick, waxy leaves (reduce evaporation)

Biomass in seeds for years of dormancy

Animals are small

Nocturnal

Some dormant during hot times

Insects/reptiles have thick coats to conserve water

Concentrated feces/urine

Survival techniques in deserts
slide19

Natural Capital Degradation

Deserts

Large desert cities

Soil destruction by off-road vehicles and urban development

Soil sanitization from irrigation

Depletion of underground water supplies

Land disturbance and pollution from mineral extraction

Storage of toxic and radioactive wastes

Large arrays of solar cells and solar collectors used to produce electricity

deserts
Plant grow is slow

Low species diversity

Slow nutrient cycling

Human impact

Off-road vehicles

Deserts
slide21

Cape buffalo

Wildebeest

Beisa oryx

Topi

Warthog

Thompson's

gazelle

Waterbuck

Grant's zebra

Dry Grassland

Moist Grassland

slide22

Giraffe

African elephant

Gerenuk

Black rhino

Dik-dik

East African

eland

Blue duiker

Greater kudu

Bushbuck

Dry Thorn Scrub

Riverine Forest

grasslands prairies
Enough water for grasses

Little amount of trees

Grazing by herbivores

Fires keep shrubs & trees from growing

3 types

Tropical

Temperate

Polar

Grasslands (prairies)
slide24
Savanna

Warm temps year round

2 dry seasons

Grazing animals

Lots of niches

Competition for plants minimized

Animals killed for coats, tusks

Farmers try to raise cattle

Loss of vegetation; soil compaction

slide25

Pronghorn antelope

Pronghorn antelope

Coyote

Coyote

Grasshopper

sparrow

Grasshopper

sparrow

Grasshopper

Grasshopper

Blue stem

grass

Blue stem

grass

Prairie

coneflower

Prairie

coneflower

Golden eagle

Producer

to primary

consumer

Primary

to secondary

consumer

Secondary to

higher-level

consumer

All producers and

consumers to

decomposers

Prairie

dog

Bacteria

Fungi

slide27
Temperate grasslands

Cold winters; hot, dry summers

Fertile soils

NA; SA; Europe; Asia

Grasses adapted to fire

High evaporation

Used to raise cattle & crops

Easily plowed for crops

Overgrazing leads to sagebrush desert

slide28

Snowy owl

Snowy owl

Willow ptarmigan

Willow ptarmigan

Dwarf willow

Dwarf willow

Mountain cranberry

Mountain cranberry

Moss campion

Moss campion

Long-tailed jaeger

Producer to

primary

consumer

Grizzly bear

Caribou

Primary to

secondary

consumer

Mosquito

Secondary to

higher-level

consumer

Arctic

fox

Horned lark

All consumers

and producers

to decomposers

Lemming

slide29
Polar grasslands (arctic tundra)

Treeless

Cold plains

Long, dark winters

Low ppt.

Grass, mosses

6-8 weeks of summer

Permafrost

Migratory birds

Small herbivores (lemmings, hares, voles)

Predators (lynx, weasel, artic fox)

Slow decomposition

Soil is poor in nutrients

Oil drilling & mining

slide30

Natural Capital Degradation

Grasslands

Conversion of savanna and temperate grasslands to cropland

Release of CO2 to atmosphere from burning and conversion of grassland to cropland

Overgrazing of tropical and temperate grasslands by livestock

Damage to fragile arctic tundra by oil production, air and water pollution, and off-road vehicles

slide31
Chaparral (temperate shrubland)

Coastal regions that border deserts

Evergreen shrubs

Occasional trees

Swift moving fires

Ideal climate for humans

Floods/mudslides

forest biomes
Moderate to high rainfall

3 types

Tropical

Temperate

Boreal (polar)

Forest Biomes
slide33

Slaty-tailed

trogon

Slaty-tailed

trogon

Harpy

eagle

Ocelot

Blue and

gold macaw

Producer

to primary

consumer

Primary

to secondary

consumer

Squirrel

monkeys

Climbing

monstera palm

Secondary to

higher-level

consumer

Katydid

Green tree snake

Tree frog

All producers and

consumers to

decomposers

Ants

Bromeliad

Fungi

Bacteria

slide34

Understory

Understory

Ground

layer

Ground

layer

45

Emergent

layer

Harpy

eagle

40

35

Toco

toucan

Canopy

30

Height (meters)

25

20

Wooly

opossum

15

10

Shrub

layer

Brazilian

tapir

5

Black-crowned

antpitta

0

slide35
Tropical rain forests

Near equator

Hot, humid conditions

Daily rainfall

Broadleaf evergreens w/shallow roots

Dense canopy

Epiphytes (like orchids)

Great diversity

2% of land surface

½ of terrestrial species

Little litter on floor

Poor soil

figure 6 31 page 123
Figure 6-31Page 123

Metallic wood-

boring beetle

and larvae

Metallic

wood-boring

beetle and

Mountain

winterberry

Mountain

winterberry

May beetle

May beetle

Long-tailed

weasel

Long-tailed

weasel

Broad-winged

hawk

Producer

to primary

consumer

Hairy

woodpecker

Primary

to secondary

consumer

Gray

squirrel

White oak

White-footed

mouse

Secondary to

higher-level

consumer

White-tailed

deer

All producers and

consumers to

decomposers

Shagbark hickory

Racer

Fungi

Wood frog

Bacteria

slide37
Temperate deciduous forest

Moderate, ave temps, abundant rain, long, warm summers

Deciduous trees

Few species of trees

Sunlight penetrates canopy

Thick layer of leaf litter

Bears, wolves, deer

Tree plantations (one type of tree)

Migratory birds

slide38

Great

horned

owl

Great

horned

owl

Marten

Marten

White

spruce

White

spruce

Pine sawyer beetle and larvae

Pine sawyer beetle and larvae

Blue jay

Producer

to primary

consumer

Primary

to secondary

consumer

Balsam fir

Moose

Secondary to

higher-level

consumer

Wolf

Bebb

willow

All producers and

consumers to

decomposers

Snowshoe

hare

Fungi

Starflower

Bunchberry

Bacteria

slide39
Evergreen coniferous forests (boreal)

South of arctic tundra

Long, dry extremely cold winters

6-8 hrs. of sunlight in winter

19 hrs. of sunlight in summer

Coniferous trees (spruce, fir)

Slow decomposition

High soil acidity

mountain biomes
High-elevated forest

Dramatic changes w/altitude

Prone to erosion when vegetation is removed

Great habitats/sanctuary for animals

Help regulate climate

Snow peaks reflect solar radiation

Big part of hydrologic cycle

Under pressure from humans

Mountain biomes