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Patrick A. Topper Robert E. Graves Agricultural and Biological Engineering. BIOGAS 101: On-Farm Anaerobic Digestion (AD). This presentation is an introductory informational tool on biomass renewable energy with emphasis on Biogas.

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Presentation Transcript
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Patrick A. Topper

Robert E. Graves

Agricultural and Biological Engineering

biogas 101 on farm anaerobic digestion ad

BIOGAS 101:On-Farm Anaerobic Digestion (AD)

This presentation is an introductory informational tool on biomass renewable energy with emphasis on Biogas.

Comments on how this material can be made more useful for extension education are appreciated.

what s biogas
What’s Biogas?

It’s a gaseousBiofuel made up of a mixture

of methane (60%) and carbon dioxide (40%) – with trace amounts of hydrogen sulfide and water vapor (contaminants).

  • What Biogas is NOT …
  • Biogas is NOT pure methane (natural gas).
  • Biogas is NOT biodiesel.
  • Biogas is NOT bioethanol.
compare fuel btu values
Compare Fuel BTU Values…

GASES

Biogas : Impure; expensive to compress and very expensive to liquefy; 600 BTU/ft3 or

80.2 BTU/gal. (vol.) @ atmospheric pressure

Methane : Higher energy content than biogas (no CO2); expensive to compress and

very expensive to liquefy; 1031 BTU/ ft3 or 137.8 BTU/gal. (vol.) @ atmospheric pressure

Gaseous Propane (LP Gas) : 2570 BTU/ft3 or 343.6 BTU/gal. (vol.) @ atmospheric pressure

LIQUIDS

Liquefied Propane (LP Gas) : Concentrated, high energy liquid fuel 91,600 BTU/gal.

Petroleum Gasoline : High energy, compact liquid fuel 124,000 BTU/gal.

#1 Diesel Fuel : High energy, compact liquid fuel 136,000 BTU/gal.

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= 1700 Gal.

of Biogas

1 Gal.

Liquid

Petroleum

THE BOTTOM LINE… Biogas is low in BTUs/gal. (vol.), so it isn’t feasible to use as a motor fuel. It needs to be used as a stationary fuel, such as in an electrical power-generating plant or boiler.

how are biofuels produced
How Are Biofuels Produced?

Anaerobic

Digestion

Biogas:

  • Manure
  • Microbes

Fermentation and

Distillation

Bioethanol:

  • Yeast / Sugar
  • Alcohol

Extraction, Blending,

and Refining

Biodiesel:

  • Refined Diesel Fuel
  • Refined Ag-Based Oils

Distiller

Ag-

Based

Oil(s)

Biogas

Liquid

Refine / Blend

Liquid

Diesel

Oil

keep in mind
Keep in Mind…
  • Biogas can be burned and used as a heat source (produce hot air, hot water or steam).
  • Biogas can be used to operate an engine generator set that produces electricity and if the waste heat is captured and used, (Combined Heat & Power-CHP), plant efficiency improves.
  • The monetary benefit occurs when the electricity generated is used to replace electricity that’s normally bought at retail.
  • A Combined Heat & Power (CHP) unit increases the cost of an anaerobic digester system.
  • You can store gas – but can’t store electricity.
  • PA Net Metering – power company must buy electricity generated, but you must meet their requirements.
summary
Summary
  • Biofuels: Biogas, Bioethanol, Biodiesel
  • Use of Biogas: Heat or Electricity
  • AD Costs to Consider: Design, Materials,

Temperature, Location, Permits, CHP Unit,

Grid Interconnection, Extra Management and Knowledge

  • Feed Stocks: Manure and / or Food Waste
  • AD is for ODOR REDUCTION OF MANURE !

The energy is a bonus !

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THANK YOU!

With additional project support funding provided by: