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Bicycle Powered Transport In Asia: Opportunities and Threats Aurora Fe Ables 1 and Manuel Camagay 2 1 Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities and 2 University of the Philippines National Center for Transportation Studies Better Air Quality Workshop 2006 15 Dec 2006 Yogyakarta, Indonesia

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bicycle powered transport in asia opportunities and threats

Bicycle Powered Transport In Asia: Opportunities and Threats

Aurora Fe Ables1 and Manuel Camagay2

1 Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities and

2 University of the Philippines National Center for Transportation Studies

Better Air Quality Workshop 2006

15 Dec 2006 Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Sustainable Urban Mobility in Asia

A CAI-Asia Program

milestones

Velocipede (fast foot)

Milestones
  • The first human powered, 4-wheeled land vehicle came out in 1418, about 4,900 years after the Sumerians invented the wheel in Mesopotamia
  • 1817, debut of Karl Drais’ 2-wheeled version named velocipede or Draisienne, in response to widespread horse slaughter and starvation
  • 1890-mass production of bicycles led to widespread use in Europe, women started using them in large numbers
  • 1970-Earth Day generated the growth of bicycle sales especially in school campuses
  • 1978-continuous increase in oil prices led to more bicycle sales than motor vehicles in the US
  • Source: www.ibike.org
the 3 wheeler nmt

See-Clo in Ho chi Minh, Vietnam

The 3-wheeler NMT
  • A cycle rickshaw or any similar 3-wheeled non-motorized transport (NMT) is a human powered vehicle for hire usually with one or two seats for carrying passengers in addition to the driver.
  • Widely used as people transport in many parts of Asia.
  • Simply driven like a bicycle but requires maneuvering and balancing skills for smooth ride.
  • Largely replaced less-efficient rickshaws pulled by a person on foot.
variants across the region
Variants Across the Region

India: Cycle Rickshaw

Vietnam: See-clo / Cyclo

Indonesia: Becak

Bangladesh: Cycle Rickshaw

Myanmar: Saika (from Sidecar)

Thailand: Samlor

Malaysia: Tricycle Rickshaw

China: Trishaw

Cambodia: Cyclo / See-clo

Mexico: Bicitaxi

Philippines: Pedicab / Traysikad

Singapore: Tricycle Rickshaw

goods movement
Goods Movement
  • 3-wheeler NMTs are not limited to transport people
  • Even 2-wheeler NMTs can deliver
  • They play a big role in the
  • local/informal economy
  • Usually unaccounted in the
  • in the ‘logistics picture’
public transport
Public transport
  • integration of mass transit with cycling or pedestrianization through available infrastructure that help define road space and parking
  • prevalence of segmented transport networks in Asia provide opportunities for cycle rickshaws to act as feeders both to mass transit and paratransit
the lure of motorization

Calbayog City, Samar, Philippines has 75% NMT and 25% motorized 3-wheelers. The City Government is thinking of expanding the motorized sector for speed and higher load capacity considerations

The Lure (?) of Motorization
  • Many NMT cities are becoming motorized
  • However, not all cities are ideal for fast speeds and motorized transport
  • NMTs mostly thrive in the local marketplace where speed is not a necessity
  • NMTs are relatively cheap and yet can support many households
  • NMT do not require high maintenance cost due to simplicity
  • More importantly, NMTs are eco-friendly
slide9

For the average passenger, it usually would not matter whether the cycle rickshaw service was legal or not as long as his needs for

  • mobility,
  • time savings, and
  • relative comfort are met, and
  • the costs are not considerable.
next steps
Next steps

The question now is whether we would like to maintain the status quo on cycle rickshaw use or propose possible recommendations to improve the level of service whether for recreation or for basic mobility

  • better quantification/ registration system
  • formalization of sector to

protect the passengers and

the drivers

  • inclusion in transportation

development plans