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Bhutan Country profile of society, economics, and the government. Introduction Shares a history of influence by Tibet, China, India, and an interlude of British colonial guidance. Ruled by hereditary monarchs. Legal system based on Buddhist law and English common law

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bhutan

Bhutan

Country profile of society, economics, and the government.

introduction
Introduction
  • Shares a history of influence by Tibet, China, India, and an interlude of British colonial guidance.
  • Ruled by hereditary monarchs.
  • Legal system based on Buddhist law and English common law
  • Kingdom for more than 1500 years
  • Autocracy has been replaced by democracy
country profile
Country Profile
  • Formal name - Kingdom of Bhutan
  • Citizens - Bhutanese
  • Capital - Thimpu
  • Date of Independence - August 8, 1949
geography
Geography
  • Landlocked between China and Tibet
  • Total land area of 46,500 square km.
  • Topography is rugged mountains with foothills and unnavigable rivers
  • Climate varies: year round snow to north, monsoons in west, temperate in central and eastern areas, subtropical in south
society
Society
  • Population is 1.6 million with 97% in rural areas
  • Religion is 70% Buddhist, 25% Hindus, and 5% Muslim
  • Literacy rate at 12%
  • As of 1980’s, life expectancy at 45.9 for men and women
economy
Economy
  • Predominantly agricultural with a fair amount of tourism
  • GNP is 3.9 Billion, agricultural is 46.2%
  • Industry is 26.4% of GNP
  • Foreign trade principally with India
  • Foreign Aid is chiefly from India with smaller amounts from U.N. and private sources
government and politics
Government and politics
  • World’s only Buddhist kingdom
  • Defacto constitutional monarchy
  • Unicameral national assembly , some members appointed by monarch and public representatives elected every three years
  • No legal political parties
  • Central government with country divided into four administrative zones
slide8

Civil law system influenced by Buddhist law based on 17th century code

  • Minor civil disputes handled by village heads
  • Government-owned newspaper and television, No foreign television reception
national security
National Security
  • Armed forces - Royal Bhutan Army at 6000
  • Modern small arms and obsolete Indian supplied equipment
  • Military budget unknown
  • India is protector, weapons supplier, and provider of advanced training
  • Village, Royal, and Forest police along with modern militia
chronology of important events
Chronology of Important Events
  • 500 B.C. to 600 A.D. - State of Monyul Established
  • 630-640 - First Buddhist temple built
  • 910 - Independent monarchies develop
  • 1100’s- occupied by Tibetan-Mongul forces
  • 1629 - First westerners visit (Portuguese)
  • 1629-47 - Wars with Tibet
slide11

1651 - Theocratic Buddhist state rules unify Bhutan and joint civil-religious administration established

  • 1714 - Tibetan-Mongol invasion thwarted
  • 1772-73 - Britain invades
  • 1774 - sign peace treaty with Britain
  • 1834-35 - Britain again invades
  • 1864 - Civil war, Britain seeks peace with both sides
  • 1865 - War with Britain
slide12

1883-85 - Civil war leads to united Bhutan

  • 1907 - Theocracy ends - hereditary monarch
  • 1910 - Invaded by China, Britain defends controlling Bhutan
  • 1947 - British rule ended
  • 1949 - Treaty of Friendship with India
  • 1953 - National assembly established as part of government reform
  • 1966 - Thimpu made year-round capital
  • 1971 - Admitted as united nations
slide13

1989 - Ethnic clashes

  • 1990 - Anti government terrorist clash with Royal Bhutan Army, violence and crime increase, citizen militias formed