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Automated X-ray Time Detection Team Members : Joe Poblocki, Prakash Rao, Aaron Huser, Pathik Soni, Kyle Fisher, and Tom Knight Advisor : Prof. John Webster, Ph.D Client : Dr. Walter Peppler, Ph.D Dept. of Medical Physics/Radiology Dr. Gary Wendt, M.D. Dept. of Radiology

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automated x ray time detection
Automated X-ray Time Detection

Team Members:

Joe Poblocki, Prakash Rao, Aaron Huser, Pathik Soni, Kyle Fisher, and Tom Knight

Advisor:

Prof. John Webster, Ph.D

Client:

Dr. Walter Peppler, Ph.D

Dept. of Medical Physics/Radiology

Dr. Gary Wendt, M.D.

Dept. of Radiology

problem statement
Problem Statement

The purpose of this project is to design a system that accurately and automatically detects the date and time of radiation exposure on a computed radiography (CR) cassette during x-ray exams.

problem motivation
Problem Motivation
  • Currently, the x-ray is assigned a time based on development, not that of exposure
  • Potential for incorrect diagnoses and/or double exposure
  • The possibility of human error exists
design constraints
Design Constraints
  • Device should be as lightweight and thin as possible
  • Software with an easy to use interface and customizable features
  • Reliable data transmission
  • Long battery life
  • Device must be durable to withstand repeated use and accidental impacts
  • Fluid- and light-resistant housing
background cont
Background (cont.)
  • Constraints with the x-ray reader
      • Top of cassette has clearance of ~7/8 in.
      • Bottom of cassette has clearance of ~2.25 in.
      • Middle of cassette has clearance of 10-15 inches
      • This is not taking into consideration the thickness of the cassette
detection and amplification
Detection and Amplification
  • X-ray detector is comprised of Si photodiode coupled to scintillator
  • Scintillators convert x-ray energy into high energy photons
  • Photodiode absorbs photons and creates current flow in external circuit
design and amplification
Design and Amplification

Based on ICL7650

design 1 timestamp via infrared transmission
Design #1: Timestamp via Infrared Transmission

By Joe Poblocki and Kyle Fisher

timestamp via infrared transmission
Timestamp via Infrared Transmission
  • Infrared (IR) light is commonly used to transmit signals wirelessly.
  • Our design couples IR with an X-Ray detector to automatically transmit time and patient information to a P.D.A. for storage.
infrared signaling
Infrared Signaling
  • Common sources of infrared include light bulbs, central heating systems, and the human body which can interfere with transmission of signals.
  • Modulating the signal allows the IR light source to blink in a particular frequency so the IR receiver, tuned accordingly, can ignore everything else.
design advantages
Design Advantages
  • Attachment to x-ray cartridge is small and lightweight
  • Signal is transmitted automatically
  • Inexpensive
  • Reduces the possibility for human error
  • Easily provides feedback to technician
potential problems
Potential Problems
  • Unique signal must be created for transmitter to avoid interference
  • Signal reliability is dependent upon the distance between the transmitter and receiver
  • Adds additional step in x-ray stamping process
projected cost
P.D.A.

IR Emitter

IR Receiver

X-Ray Detector

USB Connection

PDA module

Total

$400

$15

$75

$30

$25

$1000

$1515

Projected Cost
design 2 pcmcia data acquisition
Design #2: PCMCIA Data Acquisition

Team Members:

Aaron Huser

Pathik Soni

components of time stamping system
Components of Time Stamping System
  • Scintillation Crystal and Photodiode
  • Operational Amplifier
  • LabVIEW 7.1
  • LabVIEW for PDA device
  • National Instruments PCMCIA-4050
  • PDA with Palm OS or Pocket PC 2003 OS
  • Test Probes
possible pocket pcs
Possible Pocket PCs
  • palmOne Zire 72
    • $250
    • 312 MHz processor
  • Dell Axim X30
    • $300
    • 624 MHz processor
  • hp iPAQ h4150
    • $400
    • 400 MHz processor
software applications
Software Applications
  • LabVIEW software used to make a program to acquire data
  • LabVIEW PDA Module will allow software to be used on a PDA with Pocket PC OS 2002 or later
  • LabVIEW or WinBatch will be used to take infromation from the PDA and store it in the X-Ray file
pcmcia 4050
PCMCIA 4050
  • Probes monitor the voltage via connection with the operational amplifier
  • PCMCIA card communicates with Pocket PC and LabVIEW
  • Cost of probes and PCMCIA card: $715
total costs
Total Costs
  • Dell Axim X30 PDA $300
  • Scintillation Crystal and Photo Diode $30
  • LabVIEW w/ PDA Module $1000
  • PCMCIA 4050 and Probes $715

______________________________________

  • Total: $2045
advantages and disadvantages
Advantages and Disadvantages
  • Advantages
    • Computer program records the time
    • Pocket PC is portable
    • Reduced potential for human error, everything is done electronically
  • Disadvantages
    • Cost ($2000 +)
    • Probe wires, photo diode, and pocket pc will all be on the cassette
wireless pda with confirmation system
Wireless PDA with Confirmation System
  • Flow Diagrams of PDA and Laptop Functions
  • PDA Functions
  • Laptop Functions
  • Benefits of System
  • Possible Concerns
  • Expenses
pda functions
PDA Functions

PDA Located on X-ray Machine

  • Scan Barcode of Patient ID
  • Scan Barcode of Film ID
  • Verify with Laptop that Film has not been Exposed
  • Sense Voltage Increase from X-Ray Exposure
  • Record the Time and Date of Exposure
  • Transmit all Information to Laptop Database
laptop functions
Laptop Functions

Laptop Located in Developing Room

  • Receives Patient ID, X-ray ID, Time and Date from PDA
  • Verifies for PDA that Film ID is not exposed
  • Acknowledge that both PDA and Laptop Received Sent information
  • Keeps Database of Patient ID with Film ID and Time
  • After Developing, Technician Changes Time and Date of X-ray
benefits of system
Benefits of System
  • Accurately Records Time and Date
  • Operates with Minimal Human Interaction
  • Communicates Wirelessly, Automatically
  • Equipment not Exposed to X-ray Radiation
  • Multiple X-ray Machines can be Integrated
  • Cassettes only require addition of X-ray detector
  • Requires only 1 PDA per machine
  • Requires only 1 Laptop per developing room
possible concerns
Possible Concerns
  • Wireless Interference and Quality
  • Technician Transcribing Error
  • Process of Plugging Cassette into PDA
expenses
Expenses
  • X-ray Detector < $30
  • PDA $450
  • Laptop $900 (could use current PC)
  • USB Oscilloscope $200
  • USB Hub (splitter) $20
  • Barcode Scanner $70
  • PDA Module $1000 (UW Software used)

Price per Cassette: < $30

Price per Machine: $750

Initial expense Range: $1800-$2700

future work
Future Work
  • Research effects of X-Rays on semi-conductors
  • Research educational discounts for software
  • Research more DAQ techniques
  • Write LabVIEW and WinBatch programs
  • Test LabVIEW and WinBatch programs
  • Evaluate small group designs and choose a final design
works cited
Works Cited
  • Hamamatsu Photonics Homepage. <http://usa.hamamatsu.com>.
  • Infrared Remote Control Technology.<http://www.epanorama.net/links/irremote.html>.
  • National Instruments- Test and Measurements. <http://www.ni.com>.
  • PC World. 03 June 2004. <http://www.pcworld.com/reviews/article/0,aid,116027,00.asp>.
  • Somers, Steve. IR Control - The Invisible Frontier. <http://www.extron.com/technology/archive.asp?id=irrf95>.
  • TotalBarcode.com. <http://www.totalbarcode.com>.
  • USB-Instruments. 2004. <http://www.usb-instruments.com>.