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Announcements. Tomorrow’s quiz on NEJM paper Bring two questions about NEJM Exam I provided today. Which of the following enzymes work most effectively at a very low pH?. Salivary amylase Trypsin Pepsin Pancreatic amylase Pancreatic lipase.

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announcements
Announcements
  • Tomorrow’s quiz on NEJM paper
  • Bring two questions about NEJM
  • Exam I provided today
which of the following enzymes work most effectively at a very low ph
Which of the following enzymes work most effectively at a very low pH?
  • Salivary amylase
  • Trypsin
  • Pepsin
  • Pancreatic amylase
  • Pancreatic lipase
in zero gravity environment of space how does food swallowed by an astronaut reach her stomach
In zero gravity environment of space, how does food swallowed by an astronaut reach her stomach?
  • Swallowing hard
  • Running around wheel creates -> artificial gravity
  • Involuntary muscle contractions
  • IV administration of nutrients
which of the following organs is incorrectly paired with its function
Which of the following organs is incorrectly paired with its function?
  • Stomach –protein digestion
  • Oral cavity -starch digestion
  • Large intestine –bile production
  • Small intestine –nutrient absorption
  • Pancreas –enzyme production
slide6

1. MouthMechanical and chemical processing (chewing reduces size of food; saliva digests carbohydrates)

Salivary glands Secretes enzymes that digest carbohydrates

Liver Secretes molecules required for digestion of fats

2. Esophagus Transports food

3. StomachMechanical and chemical processing (digestion of proteins)

4. Small intestine Chemical processing and absorption (digestion of proteins, fats, carbohydrates; absorption of nutrients and water)

Gall bladderStores secretions from liver; empties into small intestine

Pancreas Secretes enzymes and other materials into small intestine

5. Large intestineWater absorption and feces formation

slide7

Stomach

End of esophagus

Sphincter seals off

stomach from esophagus

Sphincter seals off

stomach from small

intestine

Layers

of muscle

Beginning of

small intestine

Lumen

(interior)

slide8

Stomach lining

Canal empties to lumen

Parietal cells

(secrete HCl)

Chief cells

(secrete pepsinogen)

slide9

Secretion of HCI by parietal cells

HCl

to lumen

CO2+ H2O

H2CO3

To blood

H+

H+

HCO3–

HCO3–

K+

H+/K+ pump

Cl–

Cl–

Cl–

Cl–

Chloride channel

From blood

Canal empties

to lumen

Parietal cell

slide10

Enzymes, Hormones, other?

  • Enzymes: pepsinogen (inactive)-> pepsin (protease) from chief cells
  • Other: HCl -> denature ECM bacteria, from parietal cells, activator of pepsin
  • Other: Mucins/mucus protective from goblet or mucus cells
  • Other: mechanical churning -> acid chyme
  • Hormones: Gastrin (+), CCK/secretin (-), enterogastrone (-- pyloric sphinct)
slide13

DIGESTION OF LIPIDS IN SMALL INTESTINE

Glycerol

Lipase

Fatty acids

1. Large fat globules are not digested efficiently by lipase.

2. Bile salts (produced in liver) act as

emulsifying agents.

3. Small fat droplets result from emulsification.

4. Lipase digests the small fat droplets into glycerol and free fatty acids.

slide14

Fold

Villi

115 µm

Cross-section of small intestine

slide15

Lumen of small intestine

Apical side

Na+/glucose cotransporter

H2O

Osmosis

Na+

Glucose

K+

GLUT-2 transport protein

Na+/K+-ATPase

K+

ATP

Basolateral side

ADP

Blood

H2O

Glucose

Na+

Osmosis

slide19

Glycogen

Glucose

Glycogen

Glucose

Insulin causes cells in the liver and skeletal

muscle to synthesize glycogen; fat storage

cells synthesize triglycerides.

Pancreas secretes

INSULIN

If glucose

levels too high

Glucose

levels fall

HOMEOTASIS

(normal glucose

levels in blood)

If glucose

levels too low

Glucose

levels rise

Pancreas secretes

GLUCAGON

Glucagon causes cells in liver and skeletal

muscle to catabolize glycogen; fat storage

cells catabolize fatty acids.