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Stamford Marriott Stamford, Connecticut April 26, 2008. 2008. Symposia Series 1. 1. 1. Restless Legs Syndrome: Recent Learnings and Strategies. Michael J. Thorpy, MD Professor of Neurology Albert Einstein College of Medicine Director, Sleep-Wake Disorders Center

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stamford marriott stamford connecticut april 26 2008
Stamford Marriott

Stamford, Connecticut

April 26, 2008

2008

Symposia Series 1

1

1

slide2

Restless Legs Syndrome:

Recent Learnings and Strategies

Michael J. Thorpy, MD

Professor of Neurology

Albert Einstein College of Medicine

Director, Sleep-Wake Disorders Center

Department of Neurology

Montefiore Medical Center

Bronx, New York

2

how many rls patients have you treated or referred in the last month

0

How many RLS patients have youtreated or referred in the last month?
  • 0-5
  • 5-10
  • 10-20
  • >20

Use your keypad to vote now!

RLS = restless legs syndrome

faculty disclosure
Faculty Disclosure
  • Dr Thorpy: honorarium/speakers bureau: Boehringer Ingelheim, GlaxoSmithKline

4

learning objectives
Learning Objectives
  • Identify the 4 primary clinical characteristics of RLS
  • Design an individualized RLS management strategy based on disease severity
  • Counsel patients on the nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic approaches to the management of RLS
  • List the safety and efficacy profiles of pharmacologic agents available for the treatment of RLS
rls core symptoms urge
RLS: Core Symptoms—URGE

Courtesy of Philip M. Becker, MD.

Allen RP, et al. Sleep Med. 2003;4:101-119; Walters AS. Mov Disord. 1995;10:634-642.

Urge to move limbs, usually accompanied or caused by uncomfortable and unpleasant feelings in the limbs

Rest or inactivity precipitates or worsens symptoms

Getting up or moving improves the sensation

Evening or nighttime appearance or worsening of symptoms

rls prevalence
RLS: Prevalence

8

  • Overall prevalence: 5%-10%
    • Lower in Asian populations?
    • Higher in women
  • Up to 20% of patients in primary care have RLS symptoms
  • Prevalence increases with age
    • Mean age of onset: 34  20 years
    • Can appear in childhood

RLS Patients (n = 416)

All

6

Men

Women

4

Prevalence (%)

2

0

20-29

30-39

40-49

50-59

60-69

70-79

80

Age Group (years)

16,202 adults in the United States and5 European countries

Allen R, et al. Arch Intern Med. 2005;165:1286-1292; Hening W, et al. Sleep Med. 2004;5:237-246;

Kageyama T, et al. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2000;54:296-298; Nichols D, et al. Arch Intern Med. 2003;163:2323-2329; Ondo W, Jankovic J. Neurology. 1996;47:1435; Phillips B, et al. Arch Intern Med. 2000;160:2137-2141;

Ulfberg J, et al. Eur Neurol. 2001;46:17-19.

rls video
RLS: Video

SleepMultiMedia, Sleep Multimedia, Inc., Scarsdale, NY.

commonly misdiagnosed
Commonly Misdiagnosed
  • Lack of understanding of RLS contributes to misdiagnosis
  • May be tendency to attribute symptoms to better-recognized conditions
    • Poor circulation
    • Arthritis
    • Back/spinal injury or problem
    • Varicose veins
    • Depression/anxiety
    • Nerve compression

Allen RP, et al. Arch Intern Med. 2005;165:1286-1292.

burden of illness
Burden of Illness
  • Discomfort and pain
  • Major cause of sleep disturbance
    • Trouble falling asleep, decreased hours of sleep
  • May lead to daytime fatigue/sleepiness
  • Poor functioning at home or job
    • Trouble sitting still, restless
  • Impaired social interactions
  • Feelings of frustration, anxiety, depression, embarrassment

Allen R, et al. Presented at 7th Congress of the European Federation of Neurological Societies. Abstract 576;

Fehnel S, et al. 7th Congress of the European Federation of Neurological Societies. Abstract 677;

Hening W, et al. 7th Congress of the European Federation of Neurological Societies. Abstract 605.

rest general population study rls impact on quality of life vs age and sex adjusted us norms
REST General Population StudyRLS: Impact on Quality of Life vs Age- and Sex-Adjusted US Norms

RLS patients

100

Age- and sex-adjusted norms for the US general population (n = 2474)

80

*

*

*

60

*

*

Mean Score

*

*

*

40

20

0

PhysicalFunctioning

RolePhysical

BodilyPain

GeneralHealth

Energy/Vitality

SocialFunctioning

RoleEmotional

MentalHealth

SF-36 Health Survey Domain

*Scores for RLS sufferer groups were significantly below the norms for all 8 dimensions.

REST = RLS Epidemiology, Symptoms, and Treatment.

Allen R, et al. Arch Intern Med. 2005;165:1286-1292.

2005 sleep in america poll rls impact on daytime function
2005 Sleep in America Poll RLS: Impact on Daytime Function

Drive Drowsy

Participants at risk for RLS

Missed Events

Participants with no RLS risk

Errors at Work

Missed Work

P <.05, at risk of RLS vsnot at risk of RLS

Late to Work

Fatigue

0%

20%

40%

60%

80%

National Sleep Foundation. Sleep in America Poll. 2005. Available at: www.sleepfoundation.org. Accessed March 6, 2008.

rls what we know about its pathophysiology
RLS: What We Know About Its Pathophysiology

PET/SPECT = positron emission tomography/single-photon emission computed tomography.

Allen RP, et al. J Clin Neurophysiol. 2001;18:128-147; Bogan RK. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2008;9:611-623;

Walters AS. Sleep Med. 2002;3:301-304.

rls pathophysiology iron dopamine model of rls
RLS Pathophysiology: Iron-Dopamine Model of RLS

Brain: Iron Insufficiency

CNS: Dopamine Abnormalities

RLS

Allen RP, et al. J Clin Neurophysiol. 2001;18:128-147.

rls primary vs secondary
RLS: Primary vs Secondary
  • Primary (idiopathic)
    • Accounts for most cases
    • Majority are hereditary (mainly autosomal dominant)
    • Highly significant gene associations on chromosomes 6 and 2
  • Secondary causes of RLS include
    • Iron-deficiency anemia (~25% of patients)
    • Pregnancy (~20% of pregnant women)
    • End-stage renal disease/dialysis (up to 60%)
    • Medications
    • Diabetes
    • Rheumatoid arthritis
    • Peripheral neuropathy

Bonati MT, et al. Brain. 2003;126:1485-1492; Desautels A, et al. Am J Hum Genet. 2001;69:1266-1270; Earley CJ, et al. J Neurosci Res. 2000;62:623-628; Hui DS, et al. Am J Kidney Dis. 2000;36:783-788; Lee KA, et al. J Women’s Health Gend Based Med. 2001;10:335-341; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Working Group on Restless Leg Syndrome. Am Fam Physician. 2000;62:108-114; Tan EK, et al. Am J Med Sci. 2000;319:397-403.

agents that may precipitate rls
Agents That May Precipitate RLS
  • Medications
    • Antihistamines
    • Dopamine antagonists
    • Lithium
    • Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
    • Tricyclic antidepressants
  • Other
    • Alcohol
    • Caffeine
    • Smoking

Parker KP, Rye DB. Nurs Clin North Am. 2002;37:655-673; Stiasny K, et al. Sleep Med Rev. 2002;6:253-265.

which of the following is necessary to establish a diagnosis of rls

0

Which of the following is necessary to establish a diagnosis of RLS?
  • Brain MRI study
  • History and physical exam
  • Overnight polysomnogram (sleep study)
  • Serum ferritin level

Use your keypad to vote now!

MRI = magnetic resonance imaging

rls assessment
RLS: Assessment
  • Patient history is essential
  • Physical examination, including neurologic and vascular
    • Will be normal if RLS is idiopathic
  • Laboratory tests
    • CBC
    • Serum ferritin
    • Percent iron saturation
    • Folate
    • Chemistries (BUN/creatinine ratio)
    • FBG
    • A1C

BUN = blood urea nitrogen; CBC = complete blood count; FBG = fasting blood glucose.

Allen R, et al. Sleep Med. 2003;4:101-119; Parker KP, et al. Nurs Clin North Am. 2002;37:655-673.

rls core symptoms urge22
RLS: Core Symptoms—URGE
  • Urge to move limbs, usually accompanied or caused by uncomfortable and unpleasant feelings in the limbs
  • Rest or inactivity precipitates or worsens symptoms
  • Getting up or moving improves the sensation
  • Evening or nighttime appearance or worsening of symptoms

Courtesy of Philip M. Becker, MD.

Allen RP, et al. Sleep Med. 2003;4:101-119; Walters AS. Mov Disord. 1995;10:634-642.

the simple question
The Simple Question
  • The International RLS Study Group has devised the following question to determine which patients are likely to have RLS:
    • When you try to relax in the evening or sleep at night, do you ever have unpleasant, restless feelings in your legs that can be relieved by walking or movement?
  • If your patient answers, “Yes,” he or she probably has RLS
  • If your patient answers, “No,” he is unlikely to have RLS

Ferri R, et al. Eur J Neurol. 2007;14:1016-1021.

differential diagnosis
Differential Diagnosis
  • Periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD)
    • Semirhythmic leg movements during sleep
  • Peripheral neuropathy
    • More constant pain/discomfort; not usually relieved by movement
  • Nocturnal leg cramps
  • Akathisia
    • Excessive movement without specific sensory complaints
    • History of dopamine antagonist use; no nighttime worsening
  • Vascular disease
    • Varicose veins
  • Sleep disorders
    • Sleep apnea or REM behavioral disorder

Earley CJ. N Engl J Med. 2003;348:2103-2109; Garcia-Borreguero D, et al. Acta Neurol Scand. 2004;109:303-317; Stiasny K, et al.Sleep Med Rev. 2002;6:253-265.

rls primary features
RLS: Primary Features
  • Symptom descriptions
    • Creepy, crawly, tingly
    • Painful, burning, achy
    • “Like worms or bugs crawling deep in leg muscle”
    • “Like water running under the skin”
    • “Like soda water in the veins”
    • Muscle ache or tension
    • Compelling urge to move
  • Usually affects both legs simultaneously
    • Can be unilateral or alternating
  • Arms and trunk may become involved
  • Many patients experience daily symptoms
  • Rest (sitting or lying down) provokes symptom onset
  • Getting up (activity) can immediately, and at least partially, relieve discomfort
rls primary features cont d
RLS: Primary Features (cont’d)

Earley CJ. N Engl J Med. 2003;348:2103-2109.

  • Circadian pattern to symptoms
    • Peak symptom severity between midnight and 4:00 AM
    • Often marked relief between 6:00 AM and 10:00 AM
    • Persists even in “unconventional” sleep/wake cycles (eg, shift work)
  • Frequently associated features
    • Involuntary limb movements while patient is awake
    • Periodic limb movements (PLM) while patient sleeps
      • Characterized by periodic episodes of repetitive/highly stereotyped limb movements; episodes of muscle contraction last from 0.5-5 seconds, interval ~20-40 seconds
      • Loss of restful sleep; contributes to daytime sleepiness
rls when to refer
RLS: When to Refer
  • Consider referral to neurologist for EMG/NCV
    • If peripheral neuropathy is suspected
  • Consider referral to sleep center or sleep specialist
    • In children
    • If coexisting obstructive sleep apnea or narcolepsy is suspected
    • If sleep disturbance continues after treatment

EMG/NCV = electromyography/nerve conduction velocity studies.

Earley CJ. N Engl J Med. 2003;348:2103-2109; Parker KP, et al. Nurs Clin North Am. 2002;37:655-673; Stiasny K, et al.Sleep Med Rev. 2002;6:253-265.

rls treatment goals
RLS: Treatment Goals
  • Provide adequate restorative sleep that occurs at desirable and appropriate times
    • Allows relief and/or resolution of daytime symptoms (fatigue, lack of concentration, sleepiness, and depression)
  • Enable patients to enjoy quiet, relaxing, passive activities that have evoked symptoms (reading, watching television, attending the theater, travel by car or plane)

Hening WA. Am J Med. 2007;120:522-527.

rls treatment strategies nonpharmacologic
RLS: Treatment Strategies—Nonpharmacologic
  • Remove potential aggravators
    • Sleep deprivation
    • Alcohol
    • Exercise (too much vs too little)
    • Caffeine
    • Smoking
  • Consider discontinuing medications that can worsen RLS
    • SSRIs (eg, paroxetine, fluoxetine, sertraline)
    • Tricyclics (eg, amitriptyline, nortriptyline)
    • Dopamine antagonists (eg, clozapine, risperidone)
    • Antihistamines
  • Treat secondary causes
    • Iron deficiency
    • Renal disease

Hening W, et al. Sleep. 1999;22:970-999; Hening WA. Am J Med. 2007;120:522-527; Phillips B, et al. Arch Intern Med. 2000;160:2137-2141; Stiasny K, et al.Sleep Med Rev. 2002;6:253-265.

rls treatment strategies nonpharmacologic cont d
RLS: Treatment Strategies—Nonpharmacologic (cont’d)
  • Improve sleep hygiene
    • Regular bedtime and wake time
    • Restrict bed to sleep and intimacy
    • Avoid perturbing activities immediately before sleep
  • Moderate exercise
    • Neither daytime inactivity nor unusual and excessive exercise
    • Reduced nighttime exercise
    • Brief walk before bedtime
  • Relaxation techniques
    • Baths (cold, warm, hot)
    • Leg vibration/massage
    • Games

Parker KP, Rye DB. Nurs Clin North Am. 2002;37:655-673; Hening W, et al. Sleep. 1999;22:970-999;

Hening WA. Am J Med. 2007;120:522-527; Hu J. J Tradit Chin Med. 2001;21:312-316; Rajaram SS, et al.

Sleep Med. 2005;6:101-106.

rls treatment strategies symptom severity
RLS: Treatment Strategies—Symptom Severity

Hening WA. Am J Med. 2007;120:522-527.

which agent do you most commonly prescribe for your patients with rls

0

Which agent do you most commonly prescribe for your patients with RLS?
  • Benzodiazepine
  • Gabapentin
  • Levodopa
  • Pramipexole
  • Ropinirole

Use your keypad to vote now!

rls treatment strategies pharmacologic by symptom severity
RLS: Treatment Strategies— Pharmacologic by Symptom Severity

Hening WA. Am J Med. 2007;120:522-527.

treat rls us ropinirole efficacy
TREAT RLS US Ropinirole: Efficacy

Mean IRLS Rating Scale Total Score at Each Visit

25

Week 12 LOCF

P <.0001

20

*

IRLS Rating Scale Total Score (mean)

15

Placebo

(n = 193)

10

5

Ropinirole

(n = 187)

0

Baseline

Day 3

Week 1

Week 2

Week 3

Week 4

Week 5

Week 6

Week 8

Week 10

Week 12

Time Point (OC)

*P = .003.

†P <.001.

A decrease in score denotes improvement

IRLS = International Restless Legs Syndrome; LOCF = Last observation carried forward;

OC = observed case.

Data on file, GlaxoSmithKline (TREAT RLS US).

pramipexole efficacy
Pramipexole: Efficacy

Total IRLS Score

*P <.0001

†P = .00001

Adjusted Mean Change From Baseline

n = 21

n = 86

n = 114

n = 224

n = 85

n = 254

Partinen M, et al. Poster presented at Second World Congress of the World Association of Sleep Medicine. February 4-8, 2007; Oertel WH, et al. Pramipexole RLS Study Group. Mov Disord. 2007;22:213-219; Winkelman JW, et al. Neurology. 2006;67:1034-1039.

rls pharmacologic management clinical considerations
RLS: Pharmacologic Management—Clinical Considerations
  • Evidence-based and clinical guidelines identify dopamine agonists as a first-line treatment for RLS
  • Start with lowest medication dose and slowly increase to effective dose
  • Start dose at bedtime
  • If necessary, add an evening dose then tailor to patient’s symptoms
  • Watch for augmentation and rebound

Littner M, et al. Sleep. 2004;27:557-559.

augmentation and rebound
Augmentation and Rebound
  • Augmentation
    • Defined by a combination of earlier onset of RLS symptoms, increase of symptom severity, and involvement of other limbs
    • Time shift of symptoms from bedtime to early evening, then to daytime
    • Seen in up to 82% of patients with RLS receiving levodopa
  • Rebound
    • Wearing off of drug effect, typically in the morning
    • Seen in up to 25% of RLS patients receiving levodopa

Allen RP, Earley CJ. J Clin Neurophysiol. 2001;18:128-147; Allen RP, Earley CJ. Sleep. 1996;19:205-213; Guilleminault C, et al. Neurology. 1993;43:445.

iron deficiency rls treatment
Iron-Deficiency RLS Treatment
  • Consider if serum ferritin <50 µg/Lor iron saturation <16%
  • Ferrous gluconate
    • 325 mg + 100 mg vitamin C 1-3x/d on an empty stomach
    • Vitamin C improves absorption
    • May take significant length of time for benefit
  • Iron dextran (IV) is an option for patients with a proven iron deficiency
    • Single 1-g iron infusion

Davis BJ , et al. Eur Neurol. 2000;43:70-75;Earley CJ. N Engl J Med. 2003;348:2103-2109;

Earley CJ, et al. Sleep Med. 2004;5:231-235.

a 45 year old woman comes for routine examination
A 45-Year-Old Woman Comesfor Routine Examination
  • A 45-year-old woman comes to your office for routine examination
  • She complains of increasing difficulty sleeping, discomfort in her legs in bed at night, and feeling tired at work
  • She suffers from depression and has been taking venlafaxine 45 mg/d for the past year
  • She has rheumatoid arthritis controlled by treatment with celecoxib 200 mg BID
  • She’s a nonsmoker; drinks 4-5 cups of coffee daily; drinks alcohol only socially
which of the following is consistent with a diagnosis of rls

0

Which of the following is consistent with a diagnosis of RLS?
  • Family history of similar sleep symptoms
  • Iron deficiency anemia
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Treatment of depression
  • All of the above

Use your keypad to vote now!

patient history and symptoms
Patient History and Symptoms
  • You question the patient about her family history, symptoms, and sleep patterns
  • She reports:
    • “My mom used to complain that my father couldn’t sit still on a plane or at the movies. And he would keep her up at night with his jerking legs.”
  • She says,
    • “When I get the creepy, crawlies in my legs, I have to get up and move.”
    • Sensation is moderately painful
  • She reports she has symptoms nearly every night when she watches TV in bed
physical examination
Physical Examination
  • Physical examination is normal with the presence of some joint pain in the fingers of the right hand
  • You order laboratory tests
which of the following is the most helpful in diagnosing suspected rls

0

Which of the following is the most helpful in diagnosing suspected RLS?
  • A1C
  • CBC
  • Chemistries (BUN/creatinine ratio)
  • Folate
  • Serum ferritin

Use your keypad to vote now!

evaluation and examination results
Evaluation and Examination:Results
  • Clinical history
    • Sleep disturbance and discomfort in her legs at night
  • Patient’s age
    • Slightly younger than average for RLS presentation
  • Potential aggravators
    • Poor sleep hygiene, caffeine use, antidepressant use
  • Frequency, severity, and timing of symptoms
    • Nearly daily, moderately severe, occurs only at night
  • Comorbid conditions
    • Depression, rheumatoid arthritis, iron-deficiency anemia (?)
before the patient leaves the office and before laboratory results are back you

0

Before the patient leaves the office and before laboratory results are back, you:
  • Change her antidepressant to bupropion
  • Counsel her on sleep hygiene
  • Prescribe a dopaminergic medication
  • Prescribe an NSAID with a PM formulation
  • Prescribe a sleep medication

Use your keypad to vote now!

follow up 1 week later
Follow-Up: 1 Week Later
  • Patient’s laboratory results
    • Negative for diabetes, renal impairment, infections
    • Serum ferritin: 33 ng/mL
  • You call the patient with the lab results
  • She says her symptoms are unchanged
what is the next step

0

What is the next step?
  • Prescribe a different antidepressant
  • Prescribe a dopaminergic
  • Start an anticonvulsant
  • Add oral iron
  • Refer to a neurologist
treatment
Treatment
  • A diagnosis of RLS was made based on typical symptoms of leg discomfort contributing to nocturnal restlessness
  • Patient was given ferrous gluconate 325 mg TID + vitamin C 100 mg TID
  • Ropinirole 0.25 mg/d was initiated and increased every 5 days to a maximum of 2 mg/night
  • Due to nausea and vomiting from ropinirole, medication changed to pramipexole 0.125 mg, then increased to 0.5 mg
  • Her iron deficiency anemia responded to oral iron,

but leg symptoms persisted during the night

treatment cont d
Treatment (cont’d)
  • Venlafaxine was changed to bupropion; her leg symptoms and restlessness improved
  • Diagnosis of RLS aggravated by venlafaxine was made
  • Pramipexole was gradually reduced to 0.125 mg, but her symptoms returned
at this point what would you do

0

At this point, what would you do?
  • Add clonazepam
  • Add an opioid
  • Change to another dopaminergic medication
  • Increase pramipexole
  • Restart venlafaxine

Use your keypad to vote now!

internet resources
Internet Resources
  • The Restless Legs Syndrome Foundation
    • www.rls.org
  • National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
    • www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/restless_legs
  • National Sleep Foundation
    • www.sleepfoundation.org
  • WEMOVETM
    • www.wemove.org
  • PubMed
    • www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/PubMed/
pce takeaways56
PCE Takeaways
  • RLS can be diagnosed easily by primary care clinicians with simple diagnostic questions
    • Ask patients about sleep
    • Remember URGE
  • RLS treatment should include removing potential aggravators
  • RLS treatment should be individualized and include nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic interventions
  • Evidence-based and clinical guidelines identify dopamine agonists as a first-line pharmacologic treatment for RLS

67

slide57

0

Based on the clinical data presented, how likely is it that the prevalence of RLS in your practice is greater than previously thought?
  • Very likely
  • Likely
  • Somewhat likely
  • Not likely

Use your keypad to vote now!

stamford marriott stamford connecticut april 26 200858
Stamford Marriott

Stamford, Connecticut

April 26, 2008

2008

Symposia Series 1

69

69