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School-wide Positive Behaviour Support. [name] [organization]. Website: http://bcpbs.wordpress.com. Goals of this Session. Describe the reason for approaching student behaviour from a systems level Explain the essential elements of School-wide PBS Show some school outcomes

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school wide positive behaviour support

School-wide Positive Behaviour Support

[name]

[organization]

Website: http://bcpbs.wordpress.com

goals of this session
Goals of this Session

Describe the reason for approaching student behaviour from a systems level

Explain the essential elements of School-wide PBS

Show some school outcomes

Provide action planning time

what do we want students to learn by the time they leave school
What do we want students to learn by the time they leave school?
  • Academic skills…
  • Social responsibility…
    • No chewing gum?
    • No hats?
    • No running in the hallways?
    • No fighting?
    • No PDAs?
how do we react to problem behaviour
How do we react to problem behaviour?

“Joseph, I’m taking your book away because you obviously aren’t ready to learn. That’ll teach you a lesson.”

“Hsin, you are going to learn some social responsibility by staying in timeout until the class is willing to have you back.”

“You want my attention?! I’ll show you attention…let’s take a walk down to the office & have a little chat with the Principal.”

“Karyn, you skipped 2 school days, so we’re going to suspend you for 2 more.”

the get tough approach assumption that problem student
The “Get Tough” approach:Assumption that “problem” student…

Is inherently “bad”

Will learn more appropriate behaviour through increased use of aversives

Will be better tomorrow…

…after the suspension

slide7
“A punitive school discipline environment is a major factor contributing to antisocial behavior problems.”

Mayer, 1995

“Exposure to exclusionary discipline has been shown not to improve school outcomes, but in fact to be associated with higher rates of school dropout.”

Skiba, Peterson, and Williams, 1997

“Early exposure to school suspension may increase subsequent antisocial behavior.”

Hemphill et al., 2006

science and our experiences have taught us that students
Science and our experiences have taught us that students….

Are NOT born with “bad behaviours”

Do NOT learn when presented with increasing levels of punishment

…Do learn better ways of behaving by being taught directly & receiving positive feedback

our solution one shot professional development aka the train hope approach
Our solution:One-Shot Professional Development:(aka the “train & hope” approach)
  • React to identified problem
  • Hire expert to train staff
  • Expect & hope for implementation
  • Wait for new problem…
what would a positive encouraging school climate look like
What would a positive, encouraging school climate look like?
  • Students know what is expected of them and choose to do so because they:
    • Know what to do
    • Have the skills to do it
    • See the natural benefits for acting responsibly
  • Adults and students have more time to:
    • Focus on relationships
    • Focus on classroom instruction
  • There is an instructional approach to discipline
    • Instances of problem behaviour are opportunities to learn and practice prosocial behaviour
slide11
Social Responsibility &

Academic Achievement

Positive

Behaviour

Support

OUTCOMES

Supporting

Decision

Making

Supporting

Staff Behaviour

DATA

SYSTEMS

PRACTICES

Supporting

Student Behaviour

slide12
Social Responsibility &

Academic Achievement

Positive

Behaviour

Support

Not specific practice or

curriculum…it’s a

general approach

to preventing

problem behaviour

and encouraging

prosocial behaviour

OUTCOMES

Not limited to any

particular group of

students…it’s

for all students

Supporting

Decision

Making

Supporting

Staff Behaviour

DATA

SYSTEMS

Not new…based on

a long history of

effective educational

practices & strategies

PRACTICES

Supporting

Student Behaviour

slide13
Intensive Individual Interventions:

Specialized

Individualized

Systems for Students with High-Risk Behaviour

CONTINUUM OF

SCHOOL-WIDE

INSTRUCTIONAL &

POSITIVE BEHAVIOUR

SUPPORT

Targeted Interventions:

Specialized Group

Systems for Students with At-Risk Behaviour

Universal Interventions:

School-/Classroom-

Wide Systems for

All Students,

Staff, & Settings

slide14
Social

Responsibility

Code of Conduct

Focus on Bullying and Harassment

Restitution Self-Discipline

Academic Achievement

Safe, Caring and Orderly Schools

Character

Education

Positive Behaviour Support

competing initiatives that can be addressed through pbs
Competing initiatives that can be addressed through PBS
  • Code of Conduct
    • PBS as a way to teach students what is expected
  • Social Responsibility
    • A way to teach prosocial behaviour
    • A clear way to document school plan goals
  • Restitution Self-Discipline
    • A way to fit effective restitution practices into a system of student support
  • Focus on Bullying and Harassment
    • Lessons on responses to all dangerous behaviour
  • Academic Achievement
    • Create safe, predictable environments where effective instruction can take place and students can learn
slide17
Intensive Individual Interventions:

Specialized

Individualized

Systems for Students with High-Risk Behaviour

CONTINUUM OF

SCHOOL-WIDE

INSTRUCTIONAL &

POSITIVE BEHAVIOUR

SUPPORT

~5%

~15%

Targeted Interventions:

Specialized Group

Systems for Students with At-Risk Behaviour

Universal Interventions:

School-/Classroom-

Wide Systems for

All Students,

Staff, & Settings

~80% of Students

school wide class wide systems
School-wide & Class-wide Systems

Defineschool-wide expectations (i.e., social competencies)

Teach and practice expectations

Monitor and acknowledge prosocial behaviour

Provide instructionalconsequences for problem behaviour

Collect information and use it for decision-making

slide19
School Rules

NOOutside Food

NOWeapons

NOBackpacks

NODrugs

NOBullying

critical features of effective school wide expectations
Critical Features of EffectiveSchool-wide Expectations
  • Small number
    • 2 to 5
  • Broad
    • Cover all expected behaviours
  • Memorable
  • Positively stated
define expectations by setting
Define Expectations by Setting
  • Transform broad school-wide expectations into specific, observable actions
  • Clear examples of what is and what is not expected
  • Take care in defining culturally responsive expectations
creating a school wide expectations matrix
Creating a School-wide Expectations Matrix
  • Write behaviour expectations across top
  • List settings/contexts down left side
  • Provide at least two positively stated, observable student actions in each box (use the “dead person rule”)
    • The best example of behaviour
    • The positive alternative to the most common error
plan to teach expectations
Plan to Teach Expectations
  • Create a schedule and lesson plans for:
    • Start of the year
    • Booster sessions
  • Teach the expectations in the actual settings
  • Teach the:
    • Words
    • Rationale
    • Actions
slide28
LESSON PLAN

LESSON PLAN

LESSON PLAN

teach social and emotional skills just like academic skills
Teach social and emotional skills just like academic skills
  • Use positive & negative examples
    • Goal is for students to identify the line between acceptable and not acceptable
  • Regular practice is needed to build skills
  • Provide performance feedback
  • Monitor progress in skills
    • If students have trouble, reteach and provide practice
on going acknowledgement of appropriate behaviour
On-going Acknowledgement of Appropriate Behaviour
  • Every faculty and staff member acknowledges appropriate behaviour
      • 5 to 1 ratio of positive to negative contacts
  • System that makes acknowledgement easy and simple for students and staff
  • Different strategies for acknowledging appropriate behaviour (small frequent incentives more effective)
are rewards dangerous
Are “rewards” dangerous?

“Our research team has conducted a series of reviews and analysis of the literature; our conclusion is that there is no inherent negative property of reward. Our analyses indicate that the argument against the use of rewards is an overgeneralization based on a narrow set of circumstances.”

  • Cameron, 2002

See also:

    • Cameron & Pierce, 1994, 2002
    • Cameron, Banko & Pierce, 2001
pitfalls of acknowledgement systems and how to avoid them
Pitfalls of acknowledgement systems and how to avoid them
  • They become expected
    • Should be random
    • Should be deserved
  • The interaction is left out
    • The interaction is what works, not a ticket
  • They are provided in the same way to all
    • Should be used to link attempts to success
    • Should be developmentally appropriate
effective and ethical use of acknowledgement systems
Effective and ethical use of acknowledgement systems

SUCCESS

Highlight the natural consequences for prosocial behaviour

Most powerful reward:

Close second: attention

Provide as little reward as is needed to encourage behaviour

Move from tangible to natural as soon as possible

discourage problem behaviours
Discourage Problem Behaviours
  • Do not ignore problem behaviour
  • Provide clear guidelines for what is handled in class vs. sent to the office
  • Use mild, instructional consequences
  • Remember the PURPOSES of negative consequences
    • Provide more practice
    • Prevent escalation of problem behaviours
    • Prevent/minimize reward for problem behaviours
using pbs in daily teaching discouraging problem behaviour
Using PBS in Daily Teaching:Discouraging Problem Behaviour

When you see problem behaviour, make sure to look for positive behaviour to acknowledge

Try to identify what basic need that the student is trying to meet

REMEMBER: “Getting tougher” is an ineffective approach

slide40
Intensive Individual Interventions:

Specialized

Individualized

Systems for Students with High-Risk Behaviour

CONTINUUM OF

SCHOOL-WIDE

INSTRUCTIONAL &

POSITIVE BEHAVIOUR

SUPPORT

~5%

~15%

Targeted Interventions:

Specialized Group

Systems for Students with At-Risk Behaviour

Universal Interventions:

School-/Classroom-

Wide Systems for

All Students,

Staff, & Settings

~80% of Students

targeted interventions
TargetedInterventions
  • Efficient systems for students who need additional support beyond universal programs
    • Continuously available
    • Rapid access (within 72 hrs.)
    • Consistent with school-wide system
    • All school staff have access/knowledge
  • Should work for most (but not all) students
slide42
Intensive Individual Interventions:

Specialized

Individualized

Systems for Students with High-Risk Behaviour

CONTINUUM OF

SCHOOL-WIDE

INSTRUCTIONAL &

POSITIVE BEHAVIOUR

SUPPORT

~5%

~15%

Targeted Interventions:

Specialized Group

Systems for Students with At-Risk Behaviour

Universal Interventions:

School-/Classroom-

Wide Systems for

All Students,

Staff, & Settings

~80% of Students

intensive individual interventions
Intensive Individual Interventions
  • Individualized, function-based behaviour support
  • Identify what basic need students are trying to meet with problem behaviour
    • Teach adaptive, prosocial skills to meet those needs
    • Change environments to make problem behaviour less likely
    • Stopinadvertently making problem behaviour worse
does pbs make a difference in canada

Does PBS make a difference in Canada?

Kelm, J. L., McIntosh, K.,& Cooley, S. (under review). Effects of implementing school-wide positive behaviour support on social and academic outcomes.

Good, C., McIntosh, K., & Gietz, C. (2011). Integrating bullying prevention into School-wide Positive Behaviour Support. Teaching Exceptional Children, 44(1), 48-56.

McIntosh, K., Bennett, J. L., & Price, K. (2011). Evaluation of social and academic effects of school-wide positive behaviour support in a Canadian school district. Exceptionality Education International, 21, 46-60.

what does a reduction of 266 discipline referrals mean kay bingham elementary
What does a reduction of 266 discipline referrals mean?Kay Bingham Elementary
  • Savings in School Staff time

(ODR = 15 min)

  • 3,990 minutes
  • 67 hours
  • 8 8-hour days
  • Savings in Student Instructional time

(ODR = 30 min)

  • 7,980 minutes
  • 133 hours
  • 17 6-hour school days

Get the cost-benefit calculator at: www.pbismaryland.org!

needs of pbs
Needs of PBS
  • Staff Support
    • 3-4 year commitment
    • Proactive instructional approach
  • Resources
    • Administrative leadership
    • Time (FTE)
  • Monitoring
    • Data systems
      • Office discipline referral systems
      • Implementation surveys (e.g., pbisassessment.org)
resources
Resources
  • Websites:
    • bcpbs.wordpress.com
    • promisingpractices.research.educ.ubc.ca
    • pbis.org
  • Making Connections Conference
    • Richmond, BC Nov. 1 – 2, 2012
possible outcomes of today s session
Possible Outcomes of Today’s Session

Identify that a school-wide approach is not what your school needs right now

A school-wide approach is needed, and a majority of staff is committed to implementation

A school-wide approach is needed, but we need to work on building the commitment of staff

discuss with your neighbours
Discuss with your neighbours

What questions do we still have?

Is PBS something we should pursue?

contact information
Contact Information

Website: http://bcpbs.wordpress.com

  • Name

email

address

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