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Tissue Structure. Edited by: Jessica Hawley Compiled by Mark Anderson. Classify different tissues by their shape and number Know the four different types of tissues Compare and contrast different functions of tissues. Objectives. How many layers of cells? Single – Simple

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tissue structure

Tissue Structure

Edited by: Jessica Hawley

Compiled by Mark Anderson


Classify different tissues by their shape and number

  • Know the four different types of tissues
  • Compare and contrast different functions of tissues

How many layers of cells?

    • Single – Simple
    • Multiple – Stratified
  • What is the shape of the cells?
    • Thin and Flat – Squamous
    • Square – Cuboidal
    • Columns – Columnar


  • Connective Tissue
  • Nervous Tissue
  • Muscle Tissue

Thin layer of tissue that covers all free surfaces of the body

    • Includes skin and gastrointestinal tract
  • Simple Epithelium
    • Located in highly protected areas where maximum absorption is needed
      • Digestive System
  • Stratified Epithelium
    • Located in ares where there is friction with the environment
      • Skin
connective tissue

Provides the structural framework of an animal

  • All Connective Tissue Includes
    • Wandering cells
    • Fixed cells
    • Ground substance
Connective Tissue
wandering cells

Ameboid cells that can freely move within CT

    • Macrophages
      • White blood cells
      • Consume foreign material
    • Mast cells
      • Release histamines incase of inflamation
  • Abundant at the injury site
Wandering Cells
fixed cells

Cells that are somewhat anchored within the CT

    • Fibroblast – determines density of the CT
  • Primary function is to produce fibrous proteins to reinforce the amorphous structure
Fixed Cells
ground substance

A viscous solution consisting primarliy of proteins linked to carbohydrates

  • Important in lubricating joints in the form of synovial fluid
  • Density determined by number of fibrous proteins
Ground Substance
types of connective tissue

Loose – flexible

  • Dense
  • Specialized – blood and lymph
  • Supportive – bones and cartilage
Types of connective tissue
loose ct

Highly porous and flexible

  • Provides structure for blood vessels and nerves
  • Highly vascularized
  • Not very strong
Loose CT
dense ct

Maximum strength with little flexibility

  • Tendons that are connected to muscle
  • Two types
    • Regular – resists force from one directions
    • Irregular – resists force from multiple directions
Dense ct

Adipose tissue

    • Storage of triglycerides
    • Highly vascularized
  • Blood and Lymph
    • Blood delivers nutrients to tissues
    • Lymph filters and returns the plasma to the circulatory system
    • Very little structure


    • Hyaline
      • trachea
    • Elastic
      • ear
    • Fibrocartilage
      • Between vertebrae
  • Bone
    • Spongy
      • Inside the bone
    • Compact
      • Outside the bone


    • Densely packed with collagen fibers and provides rigid but flexible features
  • Elastic
    • More elastin fibers with some collagen provides maximum flexibility
  • Fibrocartilage
    • Extreme form of hyaline cartilage. Very little ground substance


    • Very dense and found on the outside of the bones
  • Spongy
    • Contains spicules and trabeculae that adds strength
types of bones

Long bones

    • Arm and leg bones
  • Irregular bones
    • Pelvic bones and vertebrate
  • Flat bones
    • Bones of the skull
Types of Bones
nervous tissue

Made of neuron and glial cells and functions to transmit electrical impulses throughout the body

  • Neuron – nerve cell
  • Glial cell – support cell that help insulate and support the nerve cell
Nervous Tissue

Major features of nerve cells

    • Axon
    • Cell Body
    • Dendrites
    • Synaptic junctions
    • Myelin Sheath
      • Made of Schwann cells
muscle tissue

Functions in locomotion, digestion, breathing, vision, circulation, and other biological processes

  • Also used as a high protein food source
  • Makes up 30-40% of total body mass
Muscle Tissue
muscle tissue1

Skeletal – Striated and voluntary

  • Cardiac – Striated and involuntary
  • Smooth – Not striated and involuntary
Muscle Tissue

Striated and voluntary

  • Primary muscle type for meat
  • Multinucleated with nuclei located toward the edge of the cell
    • Multinucleated cannot reproduce, they can only get larger
    • Helps with muscle growth

Myofiber – muscle fiber/ cell

  • Myofibril – Contractile apparatus
  • Sarcolemma – membrane surrounding the myofiber
sarcomeric structures

A band – darker in color; runs the length of the myosin fiber

  • I band – lighter in color; only thin filament present
  • H zone – only thick filament present
  • Z line – End of the sarcomere where the thin filament is anchored
  • M line – middle of the sarcomere where thick filament is anchored
Sarcomeric structures

Striated and involuntary

  • Single centrally located nucleus
  • Varying lengths of the thin filament

Not striated, involuntary

  • Mononucleated, with nucleus in middle of the cell
  • Tight membrane to membrane junctions for communication between cells

Classify different tissues by their shape and number

  • Know the four different types of tissues
  • Compare and contrast different functions of tissues