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Arrangement of Electrons in Atoms. The Quantum Model of the Atom. The Quantum Model of the Atom. Louis De Broglie (1924) Suggested that electrons can have a dual wave-particle nature Confirmed by experiments which showed electrons can undergo diffraction and interference

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## Arrangement of Electrons in Atoms

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**Arrangement of Electrons in Atoms**The Quantum Model of the Atom**The Quantum Model of the Atom**Louis De Broglie (1924) • Suggested that electrons can have a dual wave-particle nature • Confirmed by experiments which showed electrons can undergo diffraction and interference The Observer in Physics Double Slit Experiment and Example in Nature - YouTube**The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle**Werner Heisenberg (1927) • It is impossible to determine simultaneously the position and velocity of an electron • Electrons are detected by interaction with photons (photons have similar energy to electrons and thus alter the position of electrons) Heisenberg's uncertainty – YouTube Quantum Mechanics: The Uncertainty Principle - YouTube**The Schrodinger Wave Equation**Erwin Schrodinger (1926) • Developed an equation which treated electrons as waves. • Solutions to the equation (wave functions) give the probability of finding an electron in a given location around the nucleus Atomic orbital– region of space in which an electron is most likely to be found**Atomic Orbitals and Quantum Numbers**Quantum Numbers –used to describe the properties of atomic orbitals and the properties of electrons in those orbitals • Three quantum numbers are derived from the Schrodinger equation and indicate energy level, orbital shape, and orbital orientation • One quantum number describes the spin of an electron in an atomic orbital**Principal Quantum Number**Principal Quantum Number (n) • Indicates main energy level occupied by an electron. • As “n” increases, energy and distance from the nucleus increases**Angular Momentum Quantum Number**Angular momentum quantum number (l) • Indicates the shape of the orbital • Within each energy level, there are sublevels. # sublevels = n**Shapes of Orbitals**s – orbital p - orbitals**Shapes of Orbitals**d - orbitals**Shapes of Orbitals**f - orbitals**Magnetic Quantum Number**Magnetic Quantum Number (m) • Indicates the orientation of the orbital around the nucleus**Spin Quantum Number**Spin Quantum Number • Indicates the spin of an electron in an orbital Value = + 1/2 or -1/2 • An orbital can hold a maximum of 2 electrons, which must have opposite spin.

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