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SALMONELLA. FOODBORNE DISEASES Sonya Anyaka PhD student Walden University PUBH – 8165 Instructor: Dr. Howard Rubin Summer, 2011. PURPOSE.

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salmonella

SALMONELLA

FOODBORNE DISEASES

Sonya Anyaka

PhD student

Walden University

PUBH – 8165

Instructor: Dr. Howard Rubin

Summer, 2011

purpose
PURPOSE

The purpose of this presentation is to educate the general public, consumers of grocery stores, owners of grocery stores, consumers of restaurants , owners of the restaurants, cooks, chefs, food handlers, and educational institutions about the health risks of the bacteria disease Salmonella.

what is salmonella and why is it so dangerous
What is Salmonella, and why is it so dangerous?
  • Salmonella is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacilli that can cause diarrheal illness in humans. They are microscopic living creatures that pass from the feces of people or animals to other people or other animals. They are enteric organism that live in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and other animals including birds.

http://www.cdc.gov.

what is salmonellosis
WHAT IS SALMONELLOSIS
  • Salmonellosis is an infection caused by the bacteriaSalmonella. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), salmonellosis causes an estimated 1.4 million cases of foodborne illness and more than 400 deaths annually in the United States. The Surveillance Report from the Food Diseases Active Surveillance (FoodNet) for 2007, identified Salmonella as the most common bacterial infection reported.

http://www.cdc.gov.

what are the symptoms of salmonellosis
What are the symptoms of salmonellosis?
  • Although in some people salmonellosis could asymptomatic, most people experience diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever within 8 to 72 hours after the contaminated food was eaten. Additional symptoms may be chills, headache, nausea, and vomiting. Symptoms usually disappear within 4 to 7 days.

http://www.cdc.gov.

foods contaminated with salmonellosis
Foods Contaminated with Salmonellosis
  • Salmonella can be found on raw meat and poultry
  • Unclean Hands
  • foods contaminated with animal feces
  • cross-contamination, e.g., when juices from raw meat or poultry come in contact with ready-to-eat foods, such as salads. 

www.fsis.usda.gov

most common foods that make people sick due to salmonellosis bacteria
Most Common Foods that make people sick due to Salmonellosis Bacteria
  • Any raw food of animal origin, such as
  • meat
  • poultry
  • milk
  • and dairy products
  • eggs
  • Seafood
  • some fruits and vegetables may carry Salmonella bacteria.

www.fsis.usda.gov

chickens labeled kosher free range organic or natural be contaminated with salmonella bacteria
Chickens labeled "Kosher," "free-range," "organic," or "natural“ be contaminated with Salmonella bacteria?
  • The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS), does not know of any valid scientific information that shows that any specific type of chicken has more or lessSalmonella bacteria than other poultry. 

www.fsis.usda.gov

preventing salmonellosis
Preventing Salmonellosis?
  • Bacteria on raw foods of animal origin do not have to cause illness. The key to preventing illness at home, in a restaurant, at a church picnic, or anywhere else is to prevent the bacteria from growing to high levels and to destroy the bacteria through cooking to a safe minimum internal temperature.

http://www.cdc.gov.

prevention of salmonella infection cont
Prevention of Salmonella Infection cont.
  • Avoid raw and undercooked eggs, poultry, meat, or unpasteurized milk.
    • Raw eggs can be unrecognized in foods such as homemade salad dressing, tiramisu, homemade ice cream, homemade mayonnaise, cookie dough, and frostings.
    • Poultry and meat should be well-cooked.

http://www.cdc.gov.

prevention cont d
Prevention (cont’d)
  • Treatment of municipal water supplies.
  • Follow government regulation s of raising farm animals, and vegetable and fruit harvesting and packing.
  • Educate food handlers in food safety.
  • Educate the public
  • Follow procedures to prevent cross-contamination.

http://www.cdc.gov.

treatment of salmonella infections
Treatment of SalmonellaInfections.
  • Contact your public health department.
  • Rehydrate (loss of water through diarrhea)
  • Antibiotic of choice include:
    • Ampicillin
    • Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole

http://www.cdc.gov

safety precautions
Safety Precautions
  • Thoroughly cook foods
  • Properly wash hands after handling food.
  • Properly wash hands after contacts with pets or pet feces.
  • Wash hands immediately after handling a reptile or birds.

(www.cdc.gov).

advice to consumers
Advice to Consumers
  • Contaminated product may still be in our grocery stores and our homes.
  • Alfalfa sprouts tend to be contaminated very easily.
  • Consult your health care provider, if infected.
  • Children, the elderly, pregnant women, and persons with impaired immune systems are easily infected.
  • Cooking food thoroughly kills bacteria, (cook above 145 degrees F).
government actions
Government Actions
  • FDA regulates the use of specific antibiotics as growth aids in food animals.
  • USDA monitors the quality of food given to animals, inspect egg pasteurization plants and responsible of slaughtered and processed meat.
  • EPA regulates and monitors the safety of drinking water supplies
  • General information obtained from Morbidity and Mortality Weekly report (MMWR)
government actions cont d
Government Actions (cont’d)
  • CDC monitors the frequency of Salmonella infections.
  • CDC assists the local and state departments in investigating outbreaks and designing control measures.
  • CDC monitors the types of Salmonella reported annually by public health laboratories.
  • FDA inspects imported foods, inspects milk pasteurization plants, and promotes better food preparation techniques in restaurants and food processing plants, and regulates the sale of turtle.
conclusion
Conclusion
  • This presentation was intended to educate individuals that are at risk of contracting this deadly disease called Salmonella. At risk individuals such as the elderly, infants, and those with impaired immune systems are more prone to getting a severe illness such as salmonella. ****REMEMBER**** The illness usually lasts 4 to 7 days, and most persons recover without treatment. However, in some persons, the diarrhea may be so severe that the patient needs to be hospitalized. In these patients, the Salmonella infection may spread from the intestines to the blood stream, and then to other body sites and can cause death unless the person is treated promptly with antibiotics. (http://www.cdc.gov/salmonella/general/.
references
References:
  • AnderliseBorsoi, Hamilton Luis de Souza Moraes, Carlos TadeuPippi Salle, Vladimir Pinheiro do Nascimento (2010). Most probable number of Salmonella isolated from refrigerated broiler carcasses.
  • www.fsis.usda.gov
  • Investigation Announcement: Multistate Outbreak of Human Salmonella Enteritidis Infections Linked to Alfalfa Sprouts and Spicy Sprouts. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/salmonella/sprouts-enteritidis0611/062611/index.html.
reference contd
Reference contd.
  • Outbreak Response Team. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/outbreaknet/reportillness.html
  • Salmonellosis. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/nczved/divisions/dfbmd/diseases/salmonellosis/
reference contd20
Reference contd.
  • CDC (MMWR) (2010). Surveillance of Foodborne Disease Outbreaks---United States, 2007.
  • V. Rousy, A.R. Burriel (2010). Field Evaluation Of A Vaccination Scheme Against Salmonella Enteritidis Concerning Broiler Breeding Hen Flocks.