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Parentheses!!!. By JB, JC, JG, LK. Parentheses are used to add small separations from the rest of a text and have many functions!!!. 1. Writer’s note.

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Parentheses are used to add small separations from the rest of a text and have many functions!!!

1 writer s note
1. Writer’s note
  • Parentheses can often serve the purpose of a footnote, but rather than being at the end of a page, they are located immediately after the segment they relate to.
  • i.e. Most people are dumb (though many optimists will disagree).
2 parenthetical reference
2. Parenthetical Reference
  • Parenthetical Reference is used as an exact citation of an authors work that provides all the necessary information to find what you quoted in the original work.
  • i.e. “She loved kittens” (Johnson, 19) or with title (Johnson, Kittens Galore 19)
examples of mla parenthetical referencing
Examples of MLA Parenthetical Referencing
  • “She loved kittens” (19)
  • If author is not mentioned use (Johnson 19)
  • If the author has more than one work (Johnson, Kittens Galore 19)
  • If the multiple authors have that last name, place the full name in the surrounding text or citation.
  • i.e. (Leon Johnson, Kitten Galore 19)
With two the three authors use commas and “and” where the name is.
  • i.e. (Johnson and Johnson, Kittens Galore 19)
  • With four or more use the first author with “et al” or just put all the names.
  • i.e. (Johnson et al, Kittens Galore 19)
Corporate authors are treated as standard authors, just as electronic texts are treated as normal texts, though they often don’t have page numbers.
  • If no author is listed, just skip the place for their name.
  • Put the citation as close to the text as you can without interrupting it. It’s very important to your paper, but don’t let that muddle your writing!
works cited
Works Cited
  • Gibaldi, Joseph. "MLA Parenthetical Citation." The Write Place.

16 Mar 2004. St. Cloud State Univeristy. 12 Jun 2007 <>.