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Common Climate Classification Methods. Wladimir Koeppen 1900 Several updates Geiger 1936 Thornthwaite1943,48,55 Trewartha 1954, 1961 Griffiths 1966 and later. Vegetation assemblages Seasonal/annual temp and precip Moisture Balance Modified Koeppen system Koeppen modification. Koeppen.

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common climate classification methods
Common Climate Classification Methods
  • Wladimir Koeppen 1900
    • Several updates Geiger 1936
  • Thornthwaite1943,48,55
  • Trewartha 1954, 1961
  • Griffiths 1966 and later
  • Vegetation assemblages
  • Seasonal/annual temp and precip
  • Moisture Balance
  • Modified Koeppen system
  • Koeppen modification
koeppen
Koeppen
  • A- Tropical/Megathermal
  • B- Dry (arid, semiarid) Climates
  • C- Temperate/Mesothermal Climates
  • D- Continental/Microthermal
  • E- Polar
  • H- Alpine
  • Following information from (Kimmel)
af tropical rainforest
Af- tropical rainforest

Characteristics

Locations

AMAZON RIVER BASIN CONGO RIVER BASINEASTERN COAST OF CENTRAL AMERICA EASTERN COAST OF BRAZIL 

PHILIPPINES EASTERN COAST OF MADAGASCAR EASTERN INDIA SOUTHERN BANGLADESH 

MALAYSIA INDONESIA

  • ALL AVERAGE MONTHLY TEMPS GREATER THAN 18C/64.4F
  • DRIEST MONTH WITH AT LEAST 6CM/2.40" OF PRECIPITATION
aw tropical wet and dry low sun
Aw- tropical wet and dry (low sun)

Characteristics

Locations

GENERALLY POLEWARD OF Af CLIMATE AREAS NORTHERN AND EASTERN INDIA  INTERIOR MYANMAR (BURMA)  INDO-CHINESE PENINSULA  NORTHERN AUSTRALIA  BORDERLANDS OF CONGO RIVER BASIN SOUTH CENTRAL AFRICA  WESTERN CENTRAL AMERICA  LLANOS OF VENEZUELA

CAMPOS OF BRAZILEXTREME SOUTHERN FLORIDA CARIBBEAN ISLANDS

  • ALL AVERAGE MONTHLY TEMPS GREATER THAN 18C/64.4F
  • MORE THAN 2 MONTHS HAVE LESS THAN 6CM/2.40" PRECIPITATION
  • DISTINCT DRY SEASON DURING LOW SUN SEASON (WINTER); DISTINCT WET  SEASON HIGH SUN SEASON (SUMMER)
as tropical wet and dry high sun
As- tropical wet and dry (high sun)

Characteristics

Locations

EXTREME EASTERN TIP OF SOUTH AMERICA (BRAZIL)

  • ALL AVERAGE MONTHLY TEMPS GREATER THAN 18C/64.4F
  • MORE THAN 2 MONTHS HAVE LESS THAN 6CM/2.40" PRECIPITATION
  • DISTINCT DRY SEASON DURING HIGH SUN SEASON (SUMMER)
am tropical monsoon
Am- tropical monsoon

Characteristics

Locations

SOUTHWESTERN INDIA (coast) SRI LANKA BANGLADESH MYANMAR (BURMA) SOUTHWESTERN AFRICA GUYANA SURINAM FRENCH GUIANA PARTS OF NORTHEAST AND SOUTHEAST BRAZIL

  • ALL AVERAGE MONTHLY TEMPS GREATER THAN 18C/64.4F
  • ONE OR MORE MONTHS LESS THAN 6CM/2.40" PRECIPITATION
  • EXCESSIVELY WET DURING RAINY SEASON
bwh low latitude deserts
BWh: Low latitude deserts

Characteristics

Locations

SAHARA DESERT SONORANDESERT ARABIAN DESERT THAR DESERT (WESTERN INDIA & PAKISTAN) AUSTRALIAN DESERT KALAHARI DESERT

  • PE> P
  • ON AVERAGE P < 50% PE
  • MEAN AVERAGE TEMP IS OVER 18C/64.4F
  • FROST ABSENT OR INFREQUENT WINTER
bwk mid latitude deserts
Bwk: Mid latitude deserts

Characteristics

locations

RUSSIAN TURKISTAN DESERT TAKLA MAKAN DESERT GOBI DESERT  MOJAVE DESERT

  • MEAN AVERAGE TEMP IS BELOW 18C/64.4F; BELOW FREEZING TEMPS WINTER
bsh steppe hot
BSh: Steppe Hot

Characteristics

locations

-APPROXIMATELY 13-15 DEGREES NORTH LATITUDE IN AFRICA-20 DEGREES SOUTH LATITUDE SOUTHERN AFRICA -BORDERLANDS AUSTRALIAN DESERT -PORTIONS OF SOUTHERN SOUTH AMERICA -PORTIONS OF INDIA -BORDERS BWh CLIMATES OF NORTHWESTERN AFRICA, SAUDI ARABIA, WESTERN INDIA

  • EVAPORATION EXCEEDS PRECIPITATION
  • ON AVERAGE P > 50% BUT LESS THAN POTENTIAL EVAPORATION
  • BUNCH GRASSES (SOUTH TEXAS NORTHWARD)
  • MEAN AVERAGE TEMP IS OVER 18C/64.4F
bsk steppe cool
BSk: Steppe Cool

characteristics

locations

WESTERN GREAT PLAINS OF USA & SOUTH CENTRAL CANADA

BORDERS BWh AREAS CASPIAN SEA EASTWARD TO CHINA/MONGOLIA

  • Same as BSh
  • MEAN AVERAGE TEMP IS BELOW 18C/64.4F

Billings, MT

cwa humid subtropical dry winter
Cwa: humid subtropical dry winter

characteristics

locations

Portions of China, Japan, Korea

  • AVERAGE TEMPERATURE OF WARMEST MONTH AVERAGES OVER 22C/72F
  • AVERAGE TEMPERATURE OF COLDEST MONTH IS UNDER 18C/64.4F AND ABOVE  -3C/26.6F
  • WINTER DROUGHT; AT LEAST 10 TIMES AS MUCH PRECIPITATION DURING WETTEST SUMMER MONTH AS IN DRIEST WINTER MONTH.

Chongqing China precip

cfa humid subtropical
Cfa: humid subtropical

characteristics

locations

-SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES (FLORIDA NORTHWARD TO NORTH CAROLINA AND WESTWARD THROUGH ALL OF OKLAHOMA, EXCEPT PANHANDLE, AS WELL AS CENTRAL AND EAST TEXAS)

-SOUTHEASTERN SOUTH AMERICA

-COASTAL SOUTHEASTERN SOUTH AFRICA -EASTERN AUSTRALIA

-EASTERN ASIA

  • Same as Cwa
  • YEAR ROUND RAINFALL DISTRIBUTION

Birmingham

csa and csb mediterranean
Csa and Csb: MEDITERRANEAN

L.A.

characteristics

locations

-CENTRAL, COASTAL AREAS OF CALIFORNIA -CENTRAL, COASTAL CHILE -MEDITERRANEAN SEA BORDERLANDS -IRANIAN HIGHLANDS -CAPETOWN AREA OF SOUTH AFRICA -SOUTHERN AND SOUTHWESTERN AREAS OF AUSTRALIA

  • a

WARM WITH DISTINCTLY DRY HOT SUMMER W/STRONG CONTINENTAL INFLUENCE AVERAGE TEMP OF COLDEST MONTH IS UNDER 18C/64.4F AND ABOVE -3C/26.6F AT LEAST 3 TIMES AS MUCH PRECIPITATION DURING WETTEST WINTER MONTH AS IN DRIEST SUMMER MONTH (PRECIPITATION IN DRIEST SUMMER MONTH LESS THAN 4CM/1.56")  WARMEST MONTH HAS AVERAGE TEMP OVER 22C/71.6F; AT LEAST 4 MONTHS  HAVE AVERAGE TEMPS OVER 10C/50F

B

NO MONTH WITH AVERAGE TEMP OVER 22C/71.6F; AT LEAST 4 MONTHS HAVE AVERAGE TEMPS OVER 10C/50F

cfb and cfc marine west coast
Cfb and Cfc- Marine West Coast

Anchorage

characteristics

locations

-COASTAL OREGON, WASHINGTON, BC, AND SOUTHERN ALASKA -NORTHWEST EUROPE -SOUTHERN CHILE -INTERIOR SOUTH AFRICA -SOUTHEAST AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND

  • AVERAGE TEMPERATURE OF ALL MONTHS IS BELOW 22C/71.6C
  • AT LEAST 4 MONTHS WITH AN AVERAGE TEMPERATURE ABOVE 10C/50F
  • AVERAGE TEMPERATURE OF COLDEST MONTH IS UNDER 18C/64.4F AND ABOVE -3C/26.6C
  • RAINFALL EQUALLY SPREAD THROUGHOUT YEAR
  • Cfc
    • 1 TO 3 MONTHS WITH AN AVERAGE TEMPERATURE ABOVE 10C/50F

Seattle

dfa and dwa humid continental
Dfa and Dwa: Humid Continental

Omaha

characteristics

locations

EASTERN AND MIDWESTERN UNITED STATES (ATLANTIC COAST TO  THE 100TH  MERIDIAN

POLEWARD OF THE "C" CLIMATE TYPE)

EAST CENTRAL EUROPE

NORTHERN CHINA,

MANCHURIA

NORTHERN KOREA, AND HONSHU

  • AVERAGE TEMPERATURE OF COLDEST MONTH IS -3C/26.6F OR BELOW
  • AVERAGE TEMPERATURE OF WARMEST MONTH IS GREATER THAN 10C/50F
  • RAINFALL EQUALLY SPREAD THROUGHOUT YEAR
  • Dwa
    • WINTERS DRY
dfb and dwb
Dfb and Dwb

Detroit

characteristics

locations

NEW ENGLAND

THE GREAT LAKES REGION

SOUTH CENTRAL CANADA

SE SCANDINAVIA

EASTERN EUROPE

WEST CENTRAL ASIA

EASTERN MANCHURIA & ASIA

HOKKAIDO

  • AVERAGE TEMPERATURE OF COLDEST MONTH IS -3C/26.6F OR BELOW
  • AVERAGE TEMPERATURE OF WARMEST MONTH IS GREATER THAN 10C/50F
  • NO MONTH WITH AVERAGE TEMPERATURE OVER 22C/71.6F
  • RAINFALL EQUALLY SPREAD THROUGHOUT YEAR
dfc and dfd subarctic
Dfc and Dfd: subarctic

Fairbanks, AK

characteristics

locations

NORTHERN NORTH AMERICA (FROM NEWFOUNDLAND TO ALASKA)

NORTHERN EURASIA (FROM SCANDINAVIA THROUGH SIBERIA TO THE  BERING SEA AND THE SEA OF OKHOTSK)

  • AVERAGE TEMPERATURE OF COLDEST MONTH IS -3C/26.6F OR BELOW
  • AVERAGE TEMPERATURE OF WARMEST MONTH IS GREATER THAN 10C/50F
  • 1 TO 3 MONTHS WITH AVERAGE TEMPERATURES ABOVE 10C/50F
  • RAINFALL EQUALLY SPREAD THROUGHOUT YEAR
  • Dfd
    • COLDEST MONTH HAS AVERAGE TEMPERATURE OF -38C/-36.4F OR BELOW
et tundra
Et: Tundra

characterisitcs

locations

ARCTIC OCEAN BORDERLANDS OF NORTH AMERICA, GREENLAND AND EURASIA

ANTARCTIC PENINSULA

SOME POLAR ISLANDS

  • AVERAGE TEMP OF WARMEST MONTH IS BELOW 10C/50F BUT IS GREATER THAN  0C/32F
  • P > PE
trewartha vs koeppen
TrewarthavsKoeppen
  • Ar (T) = Af (K)
  • Greater expanse of savanna and stricter monsoon requirement
  • West coast climates change
    • Cs (T) = Csa and Csb (K), Do (T) = Cfb, Cfc (K)
  • Dca and Dcb (T) = Dfa and Dfb (K)
  • E Boreal Climate replaces Dfc and Dfd
  • F Polar climates replace E climates
thornthwaite
Thornthwaite

Formulation

Moisture Index

  • Water Budget
    • Ih = 100 S/PE (S = surplus)
    • Ia = 100 D/PE (D = deficit)
  • Moisture Index
    • Im = Ih – 0.6 Ia
  • Revised to remove weighting
    • Im = 100[(S – D)/PE] or
    • Im = 100(P/PE – 1)

Source: (Feddema 2005)