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The United States Supreme Court and race in American history. Project HISTORY presentation Syracuse University Sept. 23, 2010. Racial inequality and aspirational equality in American history. :. Post-civil rights era 1970-present. Civil-rights era 1954-1970. Slavery 1600-1865.

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The United States Supreme Court and race in American history


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    1. The United States Supreme Court and race in American history Project HISTORY presentation Syracuse University Sept. 23, 2010

    2. Racial inequality and aspirational equality in American history : Post-civil rights era 1970-present Civil-rights era 1954-1970 Slavery 1600-1865 Reconstruction 1865-1880 “Servitude” 1880-1954 Traditional Jim Crow racism Structural racism

    3. Timeline(drawn to chronological scale) Timeline Structural racism Servitude Slavery Reconstruction Civil Rights Era

    4. The Supreme Court and race: historiography • Kluger, Simple Justice (1976): the Warren Court as heroic • Rosenberg, Hollow Hope (1991) and Klarman, From Jim Crow to Civil Rights (2004): skepticism about courts as agents of social change

    5. Overview • 1. Marshall Court, 1800-1835 • 2. Taney Court, 1835-1865 • 3. First Reconstruction, 1865-1880 • A. The constitutional revolution • B. The Supreme Court responds • 4. First Redemption, 1880-1900

    6. Overview (cont’d) • 5. the Nadir, 1900-1920 • 6. Race, civil rights, and civil liberties, 1920- 1940 • 7. Dawn, 1940-1954 • 8. the Second Reconstruction, 1954-1970 • 9. the Second Redemption, 1970-present

    7. The antebellum Court • Marshall: avoidance • Taney • Prigg v. Pa. (1842): slavery’s intrusion into the free states • Amistad (1841): freedom as default status • Dred Scott (1857): slavery national

    8. The First Reconstruction,1865-1880 • 1. the constitutional revolution: the Reconstruction Amendments • A. Federalism • B. Individual freedom & civil status • C. The federal courts & liberty • D. Civil Rights Acts, 1866, 1875 • 2. Southern white counterrevolution • 3. The political settlement of 1876

    9. The Supreme Court and theFirst Redemption 1. Slaughterhouse Cases (1873) 2. Jury cases 1880: pretextuality 3. Civil Rights Cases (1883) 4. Jim Crow railroad cases 1878, 1890 5. Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) 6. Williams v. Mississippi (1898) 7. Cumming v. County School Board (1899) 8. Giles v. Harris (1903) 9. Berea College v. Kentucky (1908)

    10. The Nadir, 1900-1920 • Peonage: Bailey v. Ala (1911) & Reynolds v. US (1914) • Reinterpreting separate-but-equal: McCabe v. ATSF Ry (1914) • Grandfather clause: Guinn v. US (1915) • Residential segregation: Buchanan v. Warley (1917)

    11. Civil rights in the 1920s & 1930s • Fair trials: Moore v. Dempsey (1923), Scottsboro Boys (1932, 1935), Brown v. Miss. (1936) • Racial covenants: Corrigan v. Buckley (1926) • The white primary: Nixon v. Herndon (1927) to Smith v. Allwright (1944) • Asians and race: Ozawa v. US (1922), US v. Thind (1923), Gong Lum v. Rice (1927) • Civil liberties: Herndon v. Lowry (1937)

    12. Civil rights at mid-century, 1940-1954 • Race as a suspect class: Korematsu v. US (1944) • Higher education, 1938-1950 • The white primary: Smith v. Allwright (1944), Terry v. Adams (1953) • Interstate transportation: Morgan v. Virginia (1946), Bob-Lo Excursion Co. v. Michigan (1948) • Housing: Shelley v. Kraemer (1948

    13. The Second Reconstruction:The Civil Rights Era, 1954-1970 • 1. Desegregation: Brown I and its progeny • 2. the Civil Rights Acts of 1964, 1965, and 1968: Heart of Atlanta (1964) • 3. Political power: Gomillion v. Lightfoot (1960), So. Car. v. Katzenbach (1966) • 4. Thirteenth Amendment & 1866 CRA: Jones v. Alfred Mayer (1968) • 5. Busing: Swann (1971) • 6. Effects vs. intent: Griggs v. Duke Power (1971)

    14. The Second Reconstruction, cont’d • 7. State action: Burton v. Wilmington Parking Authority (1961) • 8. Racial classifications: Loving v. Virginia (1967), McLaughlin v. Fla (1964) • 9. First Amendment: NAACP v. Ala (1958), NYTimes v. Sullivan (1964) • 10. Congressional power: Katzenbach v. Morgan (1966) • 11. Criminal prosecutions: US v. Guest (1966), US v. Price (1966)

    15. The Second Redemption:The Supreme Court, 1971-present • 1. Affirmative action: Bakke (1978), Richmond v. Croson (1989), Adarand v. Pena (1995) • 2. Effects vs. intent: Washington v. Davis (1976) • 3. Structural racism: Wygant v. Board of Education (1986) • 4. Death penalty: McCleskey v. Kemp (1987) • 5. Busing: Milliken v. Bradley (1974)

    16. The Second Redemption, cont’d • 6. School resegregation: Missouri v. Jenkins (1990, 1995) • 7. Racial gerrymanders: Shaw v. Reno (1993) • 8. Procedural issues: Patterson v. McLean Credit Union (1989)