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Long-term Ecological Monitoring Plots as Sentinel Sites for Emerging Infectious Disease. Katey Pelican, D.V.M., Ph.D Ecosystem Health Initiative University of Minnesota Co-PIs Bob Wirtz, CDC Jeff Bender, UMN CAHFS Eric Hoberg, USDA Stuart Davies, Smithsonian SIGEO

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long term ecological monitoring plots as sentinel sites for emerging infectious disease
Long-term Ecological Monitoring Plots as Sentinel Sites for Emerging Infectious Disease

Katey Pelican, D.V.M., Ph.D

Ecosystem Health Initiative

University of Minnesota

Co-PIs

Bob Wirtz, CDC

Jeff Bender, UMN CAHFS

Eric Hoberg, USDA

Stuart Davies, Smithsonian SIGEO

Dan Brooks, U. of Toronto

Kimberly Lindblade, CDCPeter Daszak, CCM

Jon Epstein, CCM

Smithsonian

emerging disease trends
Emerging disease trends

Jones et al 2008

disease in livestock
Disease in Livestock
  • Mad Cow Disease
  • Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome
  • Bovine Tuberculosis
  • Bluetongue
disease in wildlife
Disease in Wildlife
  • Canine Distemper
    • Lions
    • Black-footed ferrets
  • Fibropapilloma
    • Sea turtles
  • Chytridiomycosis
    • Amphibians
  • Chronic Wasting Disease
    • Cervids
  • Tazmanian Devil Facial Tumour Disease
stages of pathogen evolution
Stages of Pathogen Evolution

Wolfe, ND, et al. Nature. May 2007.

slide7

Microbiome

  • 100 trillion microbes (gut)
  • Billions of species (estimate)
  • Tiny fraction characterized
slide8

Pathogen life cycles

Human Demographics and Behavior

EID

Microbial evolution and population structure

Land use, change and management

Domestic animal disease and management

Natural resource use and management

Biodiversity

Wildlife population health, biology and ecology

Climate change

Vector

Ecology

Ecosystem function and characteristics

Host-pathogen interactions

expansion of network
Expansion of Network
  • Expand to temperate zone
  • Carbon
  • Paleoecology
  • Vertebrates
  • Invertebrates
  • Plant traits
slide12

SIGEO/CTFS Pathogen Workshop

Long-term Ecological Monitoring Plots as Sentinel Sites for Emerging Infectious Disease

Panama City, Panama

April 20 – 22, 2009

workshop aim
Workshop Aim

To develop:

targeted research projects

long-term monitoring strategies

for microbes, parasites and pathogens in the context of:

  • basic forest ecological processes;
  • the ecology of emerging infectious disease;
  • mechanisms and patterns of microbial population changes
  • infectious disease surveillance.
goals of workshop
Goals of Workshop
  • Provide information/background on the CTFS/SIGEO network of long-term ecological monitoring sites
  • brainstorm novel strategies for emerging and endemic disease surveillance and detection
  • Identify target vertebrate and invertebrate populations for research and monitoring of endemic and emerging infectious disease
  • Identify target plots to initiate research and monitoring on endemic and emerging disease.
  • Develop long-term monitoring protocols for improving understanding of the link between environmental change, pathogen evolution, vertebrate biodiversity, and disease emergence
  • Brainstorm about potential targeted pilot projects using the forest plot network for emerging infectious disease research.
  • Establish key collaborative partnerships among workshop participants and others to ensure the implementation of strategic preliminary emerging disease research projects with the goal of seeking funding through a competitive grant process (USAID, R01, R21).
rules of workshop
Rules of Workshop
  • This is OUR workshop
  • We can change if we need to
  • Think across disciplines, include other disciplines in your thinking
  • Think outside the box
  • This is a grand challenge- lets think at a grand scale
  • Lets get something done
slide20

OUTCOMES

  • Goals for SIGEO Pathogen Program
  • Develop a long-term research and monitoring program using the SIGEO plot system aimed at understanding the relationship between anthropogenic change, biodiversity and disease ecology.
  • Use the network to determine disease processes associated with ‘hot spot’ versus ‘cold spot’ ecosystems.
slide21

10 Year Plan

Expand the SIGEO plot network to include replicated anthropogenic change ‘gradients’ in select sites (12-16 sites – hot spot versus cold spot).

Forest Plot

slide22

2 Year Plan

  • Develop a pilot project in Panama based as a test case for the greater SIGEO project
  • 4 potential sources of ‘pilot’ funds:
    • Internal CDC Grant looking at climate change and disease
    • Internal UMN CVM Grant looking at Ecosystem Health
    • Internal SIGEO funds for high priority projects
    • NSF/NIH Ecology of Infectious Disease
slide23

Why Panama?

  • Home of SIGEO network
  • Most infrastructure and activity and history
  • Already related projects to tie into:
    • Hanta virus study with banked rodent tissue from Southern Panama.
    • Emerging mosquito biodiversity project led by EPA and Gorgas Institute.
    • Ongoing ecology studies on: Bats, small mammals, primates, invertebrates.
  • Strong in-country partner- Gorgas Institute
slide25

Rainfall Gradient

Panama site

BCI

Forest Plot

Highway

slide26

Pilot Project 1-Developing the Program

  • Identify what SIGEO plots to target for gradient plot expansion.
  • Plan out pilot gradient system for Panama
  • Develop two ‘steps’ of the 4 step gradient with replicates – ‘intact’ and ‘degraded’.
  • Validate methodology and target species (hosts, vectors, pathogens)
  • If possible use banked rodent tissues from the Hanta virus project and other historic tissue from Panama to screen for other pathogens as preliminary proof of concept.
slide27

Pilot Project 2: Climate Change

Use 2 step gradient along the rainfall cline to look at the interaction of changes in rainfall and anthropogenic alterations to landscape.

At each site trap:

Mosquitoes – dengue, Flavivirus, alphavirus and Bunyavirus

Ticks – rickettsial diseases

Small mammals – Hanta, dengue

Birds – Flavivirus

Measure: Air temperature

Rainfall

Host/vector biodiversity

Pathogen genetic diversity