FLUID MANAGEMENT OF DENGUE FEVER AND DENGUE HEMORRHAGIC FEVER (2010 INTERIM GUIDELINES) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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FLUID MANAGEMENT OF DENGUE FEVER AND DENGUE HEMORRHAGIC FEVER (2010 INTERIM GUIDELINES)

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  1. FLUID MANAGEMENT OF DENGUE FEVER AND DENGUE HEMORRHAGIC FEVER (2010 INTERIM GUIDELINES) ANITA G. MARASIGAN, MD FPPS, FSPCCM ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR FEU – NRMF MEDICAL CENTER

  2. OBJECTIVES: • To update the section on fluid management of the 2008 PPS Dengue Evidence – based guidelines. • To develop clinical algorithms on fluid resuscitation of patients with Dengue based on clinical features.

  3. Notes: Shock • Is a critical condition that results from inadequate delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the tissues to meet metabolic demands. • Characterized by: • Inadequate perfusion • Low cardiac output

  4. ↓ Perfusion ↓ Cardiac Output Tissue hypoxia Anaerobic metabolism ↑ Lactic acid & CO2 Irreversible cellular damage Cardiovascular damage MOD

  5. SEVERITY OF SHOCK • Compensated shock • signs of reduced perfusion as long as SBP is maintained • Hypotensive shock • When compensatory mechanism fails & SBP drops • SBP of <90mmHg or MAP <70mmHg or • SBP decrease of >40mmHg of <2 SD below normal for age

  6. ASSESSMENT • Level of consciousness • Heart rate – Increased • CRT – sluggish, delayed, > 2 secs. • Pulse pressure – narrow • Peripheral pulses – thready, absent • Blood pressure – decreased • Output – decreased (<1mL/kg/hr in infants) (<30ml/kg/hr in adolescents) • Skin – cold, diaphoretic

  7. Fluid Management of Dengue Fever & Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever • A. Fluid Management for patients w/ DF/DHF (Dengue w/o warning signs) who are not admitted • In patients w/ DF/DHF Grade I who are not admitted, oral rehydration solution should be given as follows based on weight, using currently recommended ORS • Reduced osmolarity ORS containing Na 45 – 60mmol/L • Sports drinks (Na), <20meqs should not be given

  8. Fluid Management of Dengue Fever & Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever • B. Fluid Management for patients who are admitted, without shock (DH/DHF Grade I & II or Dengue w/o warning signs • Isotonic solutions (D5LRS, D5 Acetate Ringers, D5 NSS or 0.9 NaCl) are appropriate for DHF patients who are admitted but without shock. Maintenance IVF computed using the caloric expenditure method (Holliday Segar Method) or calculation based on Weight (Barnes & Young Method)

  9. Fluid Management of Dengue Fever & Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever • If the patient shows signs of mild dehydration, the volume needed for mild dehydration is added to maintenance fluids over the next 6-8 hours. • The following formula may be used to calculate the required volume of intravenous fluid to infuse: Maintenace IVF + Fluids as for Mild Dehydration • Where volume of fluids for mild dehydration is computed as follows (to be added to the maintenance fluid volume):

  10. Fluid Management of Dengue Fever & Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever • Periodic reassessment is needed so that fluid rate may be adjusted accordingly. • After 6-8 hours, fluid rate is computed at maintenance rate over 16-18 hours • Clinical parameters should be monitored closely & correlated w/ hematocrit. This will ensure adequate hydration, avoiding under and over hydration. The IVF rate may be decreased any time as needed.

  11. C. Fluid Management for patients ADMITTED to the hospital w/ DHF GRADE III (Compensated Shock) Compensated shock (systolic pressure maintained but has signs of plasma leakage (hemoconcentration or reduced perfusion) Box A. Obtain baseline Hct (a) Fluid resuscitation with plain isotonic crystalloid 10-15ml/kg/hour over 1 hour. Give oxygen support Improvement (b) See table 4 Yes No Box B. IV Crystalloid 5-7ml/kg/hr for 1-2 hours, then reduce to 3-5 ml/kg/hr for 2-4 hours; reduce to 2-3 ml/kg/hr for 2-4 hours; Fluids should not exceed 3L/day to avoid fluid overload. If feasible, monitor Hct every 8-12 hours or as necessary (a) Reassess hemodynamic status frequently (see table 4) including urine output (f) Monitor signs of bleeding If patient is stable & Hct increases by 10% from baseline, correlate clinically & assess need to increase fluid rate If patient is unstable and Hct increases, go to Box B. If patient is unstable & there is a sudden drop in Hct, look for signs of bleeding. Consider transfusion w/ fresh whole blood 20ml/kg or pRBC 10ml/kg If patient is stable for 48 hours, stop IVF or give maintenance fluids or ORS

  12. C. Fluid Management for patients ADMITTED to the hospital w/ DHF GRADE III (Compensated Shock) Compensated shock (systolic pressure maintained but has signs of plasma leakage (hemoconcentration or reduced perfusion) Box A. Obtain baseline Hct (a) Fluid resuscitation with plain isotonic crystalloid 10-15ml/kg/hour over 1 hour. Give oxygen support Improvement (b) See table 4 Yes No Box C. Administer 2nd bolus of fluid, colloid/crystalloid (c ) 10-20ml/kg/hr in 1 hour Box B. Box D. If there are signs of occult/ overt bleeding Patient is stable Hct Decreases Patient is unstable Hct Increases Administer 3rd bolus of fluid (colloid/ crystalloid) 10-20ml/kg/hr for 1 hour Go to Box B Box E. If patient does not improve, consider inotropes (d) & refer to tertiary center If patient improves, go to Box B

  13. C. Fluid Management for patients ADMITTED to the hospital w/ DHF GRADE III (Compensated Shock) Compensated shock (systolic pressure maintained but has signs of plasma leakage (hemoconcentration or reduced perfusion) Box A. Obtain baseline Hct (a) Fluid resuscitation with plain isotonic crystalloid 10-15ml/kg/hour over 1 hour. Give oxygen support Improvement (b) See table 4 Yes No Box B. Box C. Box D. If there are signs of occult/ overt bleeding, initiate transfusion with fresh whole blood 20ml/kg or prbc 10ml/kg Reassess hemodynamic status & bleeding parameters If improved, go to Box B If patient does not improve, go to Box E

  14. D. Fluid Management for patients admitted to the hospital w/ shock DHF IV/DSS (Hypotensive Shock) HYPOTENSIVE SHOCK Box A. Obtain baseline Hct (a) fluid resuscitation w/ 20ml/kg plain isotonic crystalloid or colloid over 15 mins. ( c). Give oxygen support Improvement (b) See table 4 Yes No If patient is stable & Hct increases by 10% from baseline, correlate clinically & assess need to increase fluid rate Box B. Crystalloid/ Colloid 10mL/kg/hr for 1 hr, then continue w/: 5-7ml/kg/hr for 1-2 hrs; Reduce to 3-5 ml/kg/hr for 2-4 hrs; Reduce to 2-3 ml/kg/hr for 2-4 hrs. Fluids should not exceed 3L/day to avoid fluid overload. If feasible, monitor Hct every 6 hrs or as necessary. Reassess hemodynamic status frequently (see table 4) including output (f). Monitor signs of bleeding. If patient is unstable & Hct increases, go to Box B. If patient is unstable & there is a sudden drop in Hct, look for signs of bleeding. Consider transfusion w/ fresh whole blood 20ml/kg or pRBC 10ml/kg If patient is stable for 48 hours, stop IVF or give maintenance fluids or ORS

  15. D. Fluid Management for patients admitted to the hospital w/ shock DHF IV/DSS (Hypotensive Shock) HYPOTENSIVE SHOCK Box A. Obtain baseline Hct (a) fluid resuscitation w/ 20ml/kg plain isotonic crystalloid or colloid over 15 mins. ( c). Give oxygen support Improvement (b) See table 4 Yes No Box C. Administer 2nd bolus of fluid, (colloid) 10-20ml/kg over ½ to 1 hr. Check hemodynamic parameters (see table 4) Box D. If there are signs of occult/ overt bleeding initiate transfusion w/ fresh whole blood 20ml/kg or prbc 10ml/kg Reassess hemodynamic status & bleeding parameters Box B. Patient is stable Hct Decreases Patient is unstable Hct Increases Reduce IVF rate to 7-10ml/kg/hr for 1-2 hrs Administer 3rd bolus of fluid (colloid/ crystalloid) 10-20ml/kg/hr for 1 hour If improved, go to Box B If patient improves, go to Box B Box E. If patient does not improve, consider inotropes (d) & refer to tertiary center If patient remains stable, go to Box B. If patient doesn’t improve, go to Box E

  16. Notes • If Hct is not readily available, assess hemodynamic status of patient using parameters in table 5. • Assessment of improvement should be based on 7 parameters: mental status, heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, capillary refill time, peripheral blood volume and extremities

  17. Crystalloids (Ringer’s Lactate or 0.9 NaCl Solutions • Have been shown to be safe & effective as colloid solutions (dextran, starch or gelatin • Comparable to colloids in terms of total amount of fluids used in resuscitation in moderately severe (compensated) dengue shock8-12 • Colloids are associated with increased risk of allergic reactions and new bleeding manifestations10-11 • Colloids may be used in patients who primarily present with hemodynamic instability 8-12Jalal SLR et al, The use of colloids and crystalloids in pediatric dengue shock; Dung NM et al, Fluid replacement in DSS; Ngan Ngo Thi et al,. Acute management of dengue; Wills Ba et al, Comparison of 3 fluid solutions for resuscitation; Prasetyo RV et al Comparison of efficacy and safety between hydroxyethyl starch and ringer lactate in children 10-11Ngan Ngo Thi et al,. Acute management of dengue; Wills Ba et al, Comparison of 3 fluid solutions for resuscitation

  18. Crystalloids (0.9% saline/ Normal saline/ NSS) • Saline is a suitable option for initial fluid resuscitation, but repeated large volumes of 0.9% saline may lead to hyperchloremic acidosis • Hyperchloremic acidosis – may aggravate or be confused with lactic acidosis from prolonged shock • When serum Cl level exceeds normal range, it is advisable to change the to other alternatives such as Ringer’s lactate solution

  19. Ringer’s Lactate • Has lower Na (131mmol/L) and Cl (115mmol/L) and osmolality of 273mOsm/L • It may not be suitable for resuscitation of patients with severe hyponatremia • It is a suitable solution after 0.9 Saline has been given and the serum Cl level has exceeded the normal range • Avoided in liver failure and patients taking metformin where lactate metabolism may ne impaired

  20. Colloids • The types of Colloids are gelatin based, dextran based & starch based solutions • One of the biggest concerns regarding their use is their impact on coagulation • Dextrans – may bind to von Willebrand factor/Factor VIII complex and impair coagulation the most • Dextran 40 can potentially cause an osmotic renal injury in hypovolemic patients

  21. Colloids • Gelatin • has the least effect on coagulation among all the colloids but has the highest risk of allergic reaction • Allergic reactions: Fever, chills and rigors have also been observed in Dextran 70

  22. Hypotension • Systolic pressure of <90mmHg • Mean arterial pressure of <70mmHg in adults • Systolic blood pressure decrease of >40mmHg of <2 standard deviation below normal for age • In children below 10 years of age the 5thcentile for systolic pressure can be determined by the following formula: • Systolic blood pressure = 70 + (age in yrs x 2)mmHg

  23. Urine Output • A good urine output indicates sufficient circulatory volume and may be used as an index or guide for decreasing the amount of fluid administered • An adequate urine output is at least 1ml/kg/hr & urine specific gravity of 1.020 is ideal • WHO Dengue Guidelines 2009 – 0.5cc/kg/hr is considered acceptable and may have been chosen to avoid congestion in the course of the disease • Monitor urine output hourly till the patient is out of shock then 1-2 hourly

  24. Inotropes • The use of inotropes should be decided on carefully and it should be started after adequate fluid volume has been administered. • To calculate the AMOUNT of DOPAMINE to be added to 100 mL of IV base solution: mg of Dopamine = 6 x desired dose (mcg/kg/min) x wt(kg) desired fluid rate (ml/hr)

  25. Inotropes • To calculate the VOLUME of Drug to be added to 100 mL of IV base solution: mL of Dopamine = mg of drug (determined using formula above) Concentration of drug (mg/mL) • Preparation of Dopamine: 40mg/mL and 80mg/mL

  26. Causes of Fluid Overload • Excessive and/or too rapid intravenous fluids • Incorrect use of hypotonic rather than isotonic crystalloid solution • Inappropriate use of large volumes of intravenous fluids in patients with unrecognized severe bleeding • Inappropriate transfusion of fresh-frozen plasma, platelet concentrates and cryoprecipitates • Continuation of intravenous fluids after plasma leakage has resolved (24-48 hrs from defervescence) • Co-morbid conditions such as congenital or ischemic heart disease, chronic lung disease and renal disease

  27. Early Clinical Features of Fluid Overload • Respiratory distress, difficulty in breathing • Rapid breathing • Chest wall indrawing • Wheezing rather than crepitantrales • Large pleural effusions • Tense ascites • Increased jugular pressure • hypertension

  28. Members of the Technical Working Group on the 2010 PPS Interim Guidelines on Fluid Management of DF/DHF • Ma. Liza Antoinette M. Gonzales, MD: Overall Chair and Chair, Committee on Dengue, HV/AIDS, another Emerging Infectious disease • Maria Anna P. Banez, MD: Co-chair, Committee on Dengue, HIV/AIDS, and other Emerging Infectious Diseases • Members: Cynthia A. Aguirre , MD Benjamin T. Lim, MD Gyneth Lourdes G. Bibera , MD Anna Lisa T. Ong-Lim, MD Rosario Z. Capeding , MD Ma. Louisa U. Peralta , MD Reynaldo C. De Castro, Jr. , MD Anita G. Marasigan, MD Flerida G. Hernandez , MD Ma. Norma V. Zamora , MD Magdalena Lagamayo , MD • Adviser: Arturo C. Ludan, MD Anna Lisa T. Ong-Lim , MD Anita G. Marasigan , MD

  29. p THANK YOU !