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Sykes-Picot Agreement Founded by Sir Mark Sykes of Britain and George Picot of France. Finalized in May 1916 during WWI A plan of how France, Britain, and Russia would divide the Middle East France had control of five areas Britain had control of six

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sykes picot agreement founded by sir mark sykes of britain and george picot of france
Sykes-Picot AgreementFounded by Sir Mark Sykes of Britain and George Picot of France.
  • Finalized in May 1916 during WWI
  • A plan of how France, Britain, and Russia would divide the Middle East
  • France had control of five areas
  • Britain had control of six
  • Russia was cut out after Russian Revolution in 1917
zones
Zones
  • France: Armenia, Syria, Lebanon, parts of Central Turkey, and Northern Iraq
  • Britain: Southern Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, North coast of Saudi Arabia, and Hafia
  • Some of these areas were in the agreement, but they were independent Arab states
  • International zones were open to everyone
balfour agreement
Balfour Agreement
  • First sign of favor to Jews after WWI
  • Written on Nov.2,1917 by Authur James Balfour
  • Was a letter requesting if Jews can call Palestine home
  • Letter was sent to Leader of Jewish community in Britain
  • British cabinet made it possible for Jews to call Palestine home
un resolution 181
UN Resolution 181

They called for a British-ruled Palestine Mandate into a Jewish state an Arab state

  • For it to be approved on Nov.29,1947 the votes would have to be 33 in favor, 13 against, 10 abstentions, and 1 absent
  • Against: 13 Afghanistan, Cuba, Egypt, Greece, India, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, Yemen.
slide5
Feb. 1,1948 Jewish state & facilities for substantial immigrants evacuated

Armed forces of mandatory power are withdrawn from Palestine

Aug.1,1948 Palestine evacuated & start formation of Jewish & Arab state

The plan was good but it didn’t stay that way because today the Gaza Strip and the West Bank don’t even touch each other

Jerusalem was not suppose to be controlled by anyone but today the Israelis control most of it

the states territories
The States/Territories
  • A Jewish State covering 56.47% of Mandatory Palestine (excluding Jerusalem) with a population of 498,000 Jews and 325,000 Arabs;
  • An Arab State covering 43.53% of Palestine, with 807,000 Arab inhabitants and 10,000 Jewish inhabitants;
  • An international trusteeship regime in Jerusalem, where the population was 100,000 Jews and 105,000 Arabs.
israeli war of independence 1948
Israeli War of Independence1948
  • The First Arab- Israeli War
  • started day after Israel gained its independence
  • Israel’s declaration of Independence: May 14, 1948
  • First day of War: May 15, 1948
  • The first month: Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria attacked, few Israeli forces kept Egypt, Iraq, and Jordan out of Tel Aviv (Capture of Tel Aviv splits Jerusalem off of Israel)
  • June: U.N. declares cease fire

Israel gets supplies from Soviet-controlled

sources. ( Stalin wanted Israel so he could be a pest to

the British.)

  • July: Fighting resumes

Israelis fought back Egypt and Iraq

Jerusalem and the Western Wall held by Jordan.

Jerusalem’s lifeline to the coast was jeopardized.

Gaza held by Egypt

Golan Heights held by Syria

results of the war
Results of the War
  • Israel’s costliest war
  • 6,000 or more Israelis

killed

  • 30,000 Israelis wounded
  • All this out of only a

population of 780,000

people

remaining conflict
Remaining Conflict
  • At end of war, Palestinians left without any land

Huge Palestinian refugee problem

  • Jordanian control over West Bank almost cut Israel in half

Israel is only 10 miles wide at

narrowest point

  • Easy bombing opportunities for Syria b/c of their control over Golan Heights
  • Chance of Egyptians blocking Sinai desert border

Would cut off Israel from Red Sea port: Eilat

Would lead to no exports or imports

palestine liberation organization plo1
Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO)

- Founded in 1964 to give voice the Palestinians refugees from Lebanese camps

- A Palestinian organization with the goal of getting land back from Israel

  • Supports terrorist activities

Umbrella organization to groups like:

-Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine

-Popular Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine

-Popular Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine: General Coming

- Al-Fatah

palestine liberation organization plo2
Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO)
  • Early 70’s was highly involved with terrorism attacks, but in the late 70’s under international pressure they had to restrict attacks.
  • First leader was Yassir Arafat (1929–2004) he took control of the PLO in 1969
  • Arafat founded Al-Fatah 1959
  • Current leader Muhammand Abbas
the 6 day war
The 6 Day War
  • War between Israel and Arab countries (Egypt, Syria, Iraq, and Jordan)
  • The 3rd major Arab-Israeli conflict
  • Began June 5, 1967
  • Stemmed from Egypt’s decision to expel United Nation troops from Sinai Peninsula
pre war
Pre War
  • Arab-Israeli conflict starts when Israel became nation
  • 1965; 37 terrorists attacks were held on Israel
  • 1967; Egypt closed off straits of Tiran and cut off oil supply to Israel from Asia
  • Israel wanted to have a peace agreement, but attacked Egypt only because they felt Egypt had a plan to attack them first
6 day war
6 Day War
  • Involved 3 different battlefronts
  • Egyptian Front
  • Syrian Front
  • Jordanian Front
  • Israel used it’s air superiority to wipe out Arab countries air force so they gained an advantage in the land battle
  • Ended by Israel gaining Gaza Strip/West Bank (Palestinians)
  • West Bank (Jordan)
  • Golan Heights (Syria)
  • Sinai Peninsula (Egypt)
slide16
Maps

6 day War

Cease Fire- 6 day War

palestinian refugees
Palestinian Refugees
  • 1948 creation of Israel
  • Palestinians were kicked out or displaced in West Bank, Gaza, Jordan Syria, and more place
  • 1950’s a conditional offer was make for people to go back later did not go though
  • War of 1960 made more people move a total of 5 million people
  • After the war 77.94% of Palestine fallen under Israel control and 84.13% of Jerusalem to. 85% became Israeli, 7.2% Palestinians

Camp in West Bank

Map on third slide

slide18
December 11, 1948 United General Assembly adopted resolution 194
  • This recognized the right to go back home and land with receiving compensation.
  • In the 1950’s United Nations made UNRWA
  • (United Nations Relief and Work Agency) this was to help the displaced people. They and Israel have set up agreements that are not always fallowed
  • 2002 Israel destroyed camp Jenin ( west bank) after United Nations say that could not interfere with a camp in Gaza
the camp david accords

The Camp David Accords

Treaty signed by Egyptian President Anwar al-Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin

Signed September 17, 1978 in Camp David, Maryland

Jimmy Carter witnessed the signing

It took 12 days to come up with the accord

The first Israeli-Arab peace deal

Ended 30-year war

Negotiation for West Bank and Gaza Strip

Anwar al-Sadat was shot by

Egyptians because they didn’t

like the deal

the camp david accords1
The Camp David Accords
  • Made up of two parts:
    • Gave the Sinai Peninsula back

and peace

between Israel and Egypt

2. Negotiate West Bank and

Gaza Strip

  • Agree that military govt. and civilian
  • administration be withdrawn from
  • West Bank and Gaza Strip
  • PLO (Pakistan) and Egypt rejected the accords and made Oslo Accord – signed by PLO and Israel
oslo accords
Oslo Accords
  • Included the PLO and the Palestinian leader, Yasser Arafat and the Israeli Prime Minister, Yitzhak Rabin
  • Had a face-to-face agreement in Washington, D.C. with Bill Clinton.
  • Leaders’ first agreement.
  • Some people did not like the Oslo Accords
oslo accords1
What Did the Accords Say?

Israeli forces were to leave areas in the Gaza Strip and West Bank

Religious freedom for all of the people in Jerusalem

Security along the borders and checkpoints remains in the Israeli forces hands

The Palestinians would be responsible for their own affairs (no help from Israeli forces)

No Israeli forces during elections for the Palestinian government

Did The Accords Fail or Succeed?

Failed because of the unbalances of power

Israel was more developed and Palestine was less structured

Lack of stability in political leadership on both sides through the years

After the Failure of the Accords

1993-Foreign Minister challenged them, saying that they threatened to land a rocket in Ashkelon

Since then rockets had been falling down all the time

1,500 killed from the rockets and 10,000 hurt from suicide bombs and shootings

More terrorists attacks than before the Accords were signed

Oslo Accords
slide24

The Likud Party

  • Created by a merger of the Herut party and the Liberal Party
  • A political party in Israel
  • Centre/ right winged party
  • Founded= 1973
  • Won its 1st election 1977(First time left winged party lost)
  • Liberal/ capitalist/ conservative
  • Wanted to reduce taxes
  • Ariel Sharon from this party started the disengagement plan
  • Current leader of the party: Benjamin Netanyahu
slide25

The Disengagement Plan

  • The Israeli evacuation of the Gaza Strip and the West Bank
  • Includes military evacuation
  • Only part not evacuated by military: “Philadelphi Route” (border between Egypt and Israel
  • Israel builds anti-terrorist security fence
  • Israel controls borders/ all air space
  • Will destroy Israeli buildings
  • Feb. 16 final version of plan passed
  • 884 million U.S. dollars given to pay for relocation of 9,000 jews living in gaza strip and west bank
  • Israelis didn’t want to leave (protested)
  • Chance for a Palestinian country
israeli security fence
Israeli Security Fence
  • Also known as the Israeli West Bank barrier
  • Purpose of construction is to stop Palestinian terrorists from harming Israelis
  • Construction began in 2002, and is still unfinished (3/4 completed) , projected finish date is sometime in 2010
  • The length is 670 kilometers (420 miles)
  • The wall consists of a concrete base and has a height of 8 meters
  • It is located mainly within the West Bank, partly along the 1949 Armistice line, or "Green Line" between Israel and Jordan
israeli security fence1
Israeli Security Fence
  • The wall has cause much controversy with the Israeli and Palestinian people
  • Hundreds of Palestinian farmers and traders are cut off from their land
  • Two similar barriers, the Israeli Gaza Strip barrier and the Israeli-built 40-foot (12 m) wall separating Gaza from Egypt
  • Israeli people heavily favor the construction of the wall
  • Palestinians believe the wall will cause reduced freedoms, reduction of Israeli checkpoint and closures, loss of land, increased difficulty in accessing medical services in Israel, restricted access to water sources, change in political tactics and strategy, and economic effects.
hezbollah

Location: Locations are southern Beirut, southern Lebanon, and Bekaa Valley

Hezbollah

By: Alex Wiley

Leader: Hasan Nasrallah

slide29

Anti-Western and anti-Israeli

One terrorist act was 1985 hijacking of TWA flight 847

The End

Four Main Ways of Operating Against Israel

1: Bringing terrorists and collaborators through the border using foreign documents

2: Setting up a terrorist organization inside Israel and Judea, Samaria and the Gaza Strip

3: Cross-border operations- smuggling weapons and terrorists

4: Financial support for Palestinian organizations and groups

Dedicated to liberating Jerusalem and eliminating Israel

Began establishing base in Lebanon in 1982

Declared themselves the “Party of God”

Founding statement has a section called “The Necessity for the Destruction of Israel”

Founded after military seizure of Lebanon in 1982

Want the removal of all non-Islamic influences from the area

Imad Fayez Mugniyah is the terrorism planner

Base is in Lebanon’s Shi’ite dominate areas

Group’s highest governing body, Majilis al-Shura, is led by Secretary General Hasan Nasrallah

Has been a major weapon supplier for Hamas

July 2006 raid on a order post kidnapping two Israeli soldiers

Receives aid from Iran and Syria

facts on hamas
THEY ARE:

Terrorist Group

Palestinian Militant Movement

Current Leader-

Mahmoud Al-Zahar

In late 1987’s founded by:

Sheikh Ahmed Yassin

Mohammed Taha

Hamas in Arabic= “Zeal” or fighting spirit

Where they attack-

Palestinian Territories

West Bank

Gaza Strip

Israel

Goals

Combine Palestinian Nationalism with Islamic Fundamentalism

Destruction of Israel

Want to create an Islamic State in West Bank and Gaza Strip

Beliefs

“Peace talks will do no good”

“We do not believe we can live with the enemy.”

Facts on Hamas
slide31
Good Things about them- (they are not only a terrorist group)

They fund:

Schools,

orphanages,

mosques,

healthcare clinics,

soup kitchens

sports leagues

Bad Things about them-

Killed more than 500 people in 350 terrorist attacks since 1993

Bombed buses, streets, & buildings

Attacks civilians

Have wings devoted to these activities:

Religious

Military

Political

Security

Picture shows teaching young children “Hamas ways”

Map shows Hamas fire rockets on Gaza