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J Gareth Evans When we study the New Testament we encounter people and cultures different from our own. We need to be aware of this as we seek to communicate God's Word to our own generation and culture. Survey of New Testament Times. Lecture Outline. Relationship to Old Testament

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survey of new testament times

J Gareth Evans

When we study the New Testament we encounter people and cultures different from our own. We need to be aware of this as we seek to communicate God's Word to our own generation and culture.

Survey of New Testament Times
lecture outline
Lecture Outline
  • Relationship to Old Testament
  • The New Testament Canon
  • New Testament World
    • Greek, Roman, Jewish
  • Language & Literature
  • Religious Movements
  • Messianic Expectations
  • The Early Church
relationship to the old testament
Relationship to the Old Testament
  • Volume II of God's story of Salvation
  • New Covenant superior – 2 Cor 7-18
  • Fulfilment of OT Law
  • Realization of Messianic Hope
    • Jesus – the New Moses
    • Jesus – the last Adam
  • Church and Israel
  • Numerous quotations, eg 1 Cor 15:32 from Isa 22
new testament canon
New Testament Canon
  • 27 Books
  • Canon = “rule”
  • Took 400 years to formulise
  • Many churches rejected Revelation, James, 2 Peter
  • Some accepted Epistle of Barnabas, Apocalypse of Peter, Shepherd of Hermas
  • Current canon first used by Athanasius (367AD)
  • Council of Carthage - 397AD
new testament world
New Testament World
  • Culturally - Greek, Roman and Jewish
  • Language
    • Greek for trade
    • Latin for goverment
    • Aramaic
  • Politically – Roman
    • Stability
    • Communications
historic outline
Historic Outline
  • Alexander the Great
  • Ptolemies & Seleucids
  • Antiochus IV
  • Maccabees
  • Roman Conquest
  • Herods
  • Jewish Revolt
alexander the great
Alexander the Great
  • “Goat” of Daniel 8
  • Ruled 336-323 BC
  • Introduced Greek culture throughout his empire, including Palestine.
antiochus epiphanes
Antiochus Epiphanes
  • After his death, Alexander's empire fragmented.
  • Ptolemies in Egypt and Seleucids in Syria
  • Continuing conflict with Palestine in middle (Daniel 11)
  • Seleucid Antiochus attempted unification through enforced Hellenization and eradicating Jewish belief
  • Defiled the temple by removing treasures, erecting a statue of Zeus, and sacricing pigs (cf Matt 24:15)
  • Killed Jews who refused to conform
  • Sparked off Maccabean revolt
maccabean revolt dan 11 12
Maccabean Revolt – Dan 11:12?
  • Hasidim or “pious ones” suffered terribly
    • 90 year old Eleazar killed for spitting out pig's flesh
    • 7 brothers (2 Maccabees 7)
  • Mattathias kills Syrian commissioner
  • Organizes resistance movement with 5 sons
    • Judas Maccabeus
  • Recapture & purification of temple
  • Feast of dedication – Hanukkah
  • Independence 142 BC – Hasmonean dynasty
roman rule
Roman Rule
  • Hasmonean Dynasty (142-40 BC)
  • Intervention in a dispute between John Hyrcanus II and Aristobulus II
  • Rome sent Pompey to establish Hyrcanus as “ethnarch” - puppet of Rome
roman emperors
Roman Emperors
  • Augustus(30 B.C. - A.D. 14) Jesus' birth (circa 5 B.C.) (Luke 2)
  • Tiberius (AD. 14-37) Jesus' Public Ministry (Luke 3)
  • Caligula (AD. 37-41) Wanted status of deity
  • Claudius (AD. 41-54) Expelled Jews from Rome (Acts 18:2)
  • Nero (AD. 54-68) Probably responsible for deaths of Peter and Paul
  • Galba (AD. 68-69), Otho (A.D. 69), Vitellius (AD. 69)
  • Vespasian (AD. 69-79) Led in the seige of Jerusalem
  • Titus (A D. 79-81) Destroyed Temple (A.D. 70)
  • Domitian (A.D. 81-96) The Book of Revelation written in this period.
the herods
The Herods
  • Puppet kings under the Romans
  • Herod the Great - (Matthew 2:1-19, Luke 1:5) - Authority over Palestine at tine of Jesus' birth
  • Herod Antipas - (Mark 6:14-29, Luke 3:1, 13:31-35, 23:7-12) - Controlled Galilee and Perea during Jesus'; public ministry
  • Archelaus - (Matthew 2:22) - Replaced by procurator in A.D. 6
  • Herod Phillip - (Luke 3:1) - Ruler of territory around Caesarea Philippi
  • Herod Agrippa 1 - (Acts 12:1-24)
  • Herod Agrippa 2 - (Acts 25:13-26:32)
  • Family Tree
language and literature
Language and Literature
  • Old Testament – Hebrew and Greek (LXX)
    • Epistle to the Hebrews
  • Intertestamental Literature
    • 1 Enoch (Jude 14,15)
  • Secular writing
    • Epimenides (Titus 1:12)
  • NT Literature Types
    • Gospel, Epistle, History, Apocalyptic
    • Quotations. Is Eph 5:14 – A baptismal hymn?
religion in the roman empire
Religion in the Roman Empire
  • Religious Pluralism
  • The Twelve Olympians (Acts 14:11ff)
  • Mystery Religions
    • Mithraism; A Persian religion associated with Zoroasterianism
  • Philosophies
    • Stoics (Acts 17:18)
    • Epicureans (Acts 17:18)
    • Platonism
jewish religious diversity
Jewish Religious Diversity
  • Sadducees
  • Pharisees
    • Hillel and Shammai
  • Zealots
  • Essenes
  • Samaritans
  • Galileans
pharisees
Pharisees
  • The Pharisees ("separated ones") originated from the Hasidim, those Jews who separated themselves from the corruption of Hellenistic culture. Pharisees originated after the Maccabean Revolt of 168 B.C.
  • Beliefs
    • Accepted both the written law and the oral law. When the oral law was eventually recorded, it was known as Mishnah. This, plus the commentary which was added, comprised the Talmud.
    • Believed in the resurrection of the dead.
  • In the New Testament, they are shown as Jesus' bitter opponents (Matt 23). They are synonymous with hypocrisy and legalism.
  • Two major groups of Pharisees:
    • Those who were very strict in the law - following Rabbi Shammai.
    • Those who were more liberal in their interpretation -led by the Rabbi Hillel.
sadducees
Sadducees
  • Sadducees means “righteous ones” - A link with Zadok?
  • Heirs of the Intertestamental Hasmoneans (politically minded group who controlled Israel between 142 and 37 B.C.).
  • Beliefs:
    • They practiced a literal reading of the Torah and rejected the oral Law.
    • They did not share the Pharisee's belief in a coming judgment, resurrection, angels, or demons (Mark 12:18, Acts 23:8).
  • Role - Priests who officiated Temple ceremonies.
  • According to Josephus, the Sadducees seem to have been the mediators between the Jews and Romans during Roman occupation. They stood to lose the most when dews revolted against Rome.
  • Sadducees dominated the Sanhedrin
essenes and zealots
Essenes and Zealots
  • Essenes
    • An example of apocalyptic Judaism
    • Qumran
    • Dead Sea Scrolls
    • 2 Messiahs (priest and king)
  • Zealots (Mark 3:18)
    • Sought to overthrow the Romans by force
    • Masada, AD 73
samaritans
Samaritans
  • Lived between Judea and Galilee
  • Mixed Race – Intermarrying between Israelites and imported peoples during Assyrian period
  • Temple on Mount Gerizim
  • Deep rooted enmity between Jews and Samaritans
    • Bad Reception (Luke 9:51-56)
the temple
The Temple
  • Focus of Jewish Religious Life
  • Built - 19 BC - 63 AD
  • An enlarging and further beautifying of Zerubbabel's Temple initiated by Herod the Great
  • Complex – 500 x 325 yards (25 football fields)
  • Destroyed - 70 AD
synagogue
Synagogue
  • From Greek. Lit. “Gathering”
  • Originated during exile ~500 BC
  • Reading the OT Scriptures
  • Jesus attended the synagogue (Luke 4:15)
  • So did Paul (Acts 13:14)
  • 10 males required (Acts 16:13)
  • Separation of men and women
messianic expectation
Messianic Expectation
  • Old Testament Prophecies
  • Jewish Apocrypha & pseudopigrapha
  • Essenes (2 Messiahs)
  • Year of Jubilee
  • Roman occupation
  • Other claimants – Judah the Galilean (~4 BC)
non biblical sources for jesus of nazareth
Non-Biblical Sources for Jesus of Nazareth
  • Flavius Josephus (born AD 52-54)
    • Antiquities contain positive reference to Jesus. Some think Christians have “doctored” documents.
  • Cornelius Tacitus (born AD 52-54)
    • Refers to Nero's persecution of Christians & to deathof Jesus
  • Seutonius (AD 120)
    • Refers to Claudius expelling Christians from Rome (Acts 18:20 and persecution under Nero.
galilee galileans
Galilee & Galileans
  • Jesus focussed much of his ministry in Galilee
  • Chorazim, Bethsaida, Capernaum
  • Galilee of the Gentiles (Matt 4:15) – Cosmopolitan
  • Via Maris trade route
  • Supplied fish to Jerusalem – John 18:16
  • Religious and knew scriptures well
  • Jewish Revolt started in Galilee
pontius pilate
Inscription found at Caesarea – 1961

. . . . . . S TIBERIEVM. . [PO]NTIVS PILATVS[PRA]ECTVS IVDA[EA]E

Pontius Pilate
  • Fifth Governor of Roman Judea (Ad 26-37)
  • Suspended by Vitellius for murdering Samaritans
  • One tradition states he was exiled to Gaul where he committed suicide
capital punishment
Capital Punishment
  • Jews – Stoning
    • But not allowed by Romans
    • Stephen martyred between governors
  • Romans
    • Cross
      • Could take a week to die
    • Beheading
    • Sacked & thrown in sea
    • Whipping to death
the early church
The Early Church
  • Don't know much about church in 1st century apart from New Testament
  • Expanded
  • Met in homes
  • Opposition
    • Persecutions
    • Heresies
      • Judaisers
      • Docetism
      • Gnosticism
persecution in nt times
Persecution in NT Times
  • Three types - Religious, economic, political
  • Martyrdom – a real threat
  • Jewish Persecution
    • James (Acts 12) - Herod
    • James the Just– Ananus after Festus' departure
  • Nero – 64 AD
    • Tacitus
    • Peter and Paul
  • Domitian c90-96 AD
    • John on Patmos
  • “All your cruelties can accomplish nothing. Our number increases the more you destroy us. The blood of the Christians is their seed.” - Tertullian
the church in mission
The Church in Mission
  • “To the ends of the earth”
  • Holy Spirit Motivation
  • Reasons for Growth
    • Common Language
    • OT Scriptures in Greek
    • Good Communications
    • Peace & Stability (Pax Romana)
  • A message of hope in a hopeless world
  • Commitment to the task
the diaspora
The Diaspora
  • Dispersion after the exile (1 Peter 1:1)
  • 8 million Jews worldwide during time of Jesus
    • 1 out of 10 of population of Roman Empire
  • Greek speaking
    • Used Septuagint (Greek OT)
  • Key to spread of Gospel – Acts 2
the apostle paul
Missionary extraordinary

Great letter writer

The Apostle Paul
  • Disciple of Gamaliel
    • Talmud
    • Grandson of Hillel
  • Native of Tarsus
  • Died in Rome under Nero (~AD 66)
  • A Pharisee before his conversion (Phil 3:5)
paul the missionary
Anthony Thistleton sees Corinth as a “post-modern” city. Paul experienced similar challenges to the ones we face.Paul the Missionary
  • Planned to visit Spain (Rom 15:24)
  • Worked in a team – Col 4:10-14, Philemon
  • Focussed on cities
  • Trained the next generation – Timothy, Titus
domitian a monster
Domitian - “a monster?”
  • Emperor at time Book of Revelation written
  • Building Projects
    • Colisseum, Palatine
  • Rebellion & Warfare
  • Pompeii
  • Emperor worship
nt archeology
NT Archeology
  • "The excessive skepticism shown toward the Bible [by certain schools of thought] has been progressively discredited. Discovery after discovery has established the accuracy of numerous details." - WF Albright
  • Recent archaeological discoveries include both the Pool of Betesda (John 5:1) and "The Pavement" (John 19:13). Their existence was doubted just a few decades ago.
  • William Ramsey verifying historical accuracy of Luke's writings
  • Hemer – The Book of Acts in the setting of Hellenistic History
slide53
Challenge – To communicate the Gospel written to the people of the New Testament world into our culture