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Definition of Emotion. An acceptable philosophical theory of emotions should be able to account at least for the following nine characteristics: emotions are typically conscious phenomena; yet they typically involve more pervasive bodily manifestations than other conscious states;

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Definition of emotion
Definition of Emotion

  • An acceptable philosophical theory of emotions should be able to account at least for the following nine characteristics:

  • emotions are typically conscious phenomena; yet

  • they typically involve more pervasive bodily manifestations than other conscious states;

  • they vary along a number of dimensions: intensity, type and range of intentional objects, etc.

  • they are reputed to be antagonists of rationality; but also

  • they play an indispensable role in determining the quality of life;

  • they contribute crucially to defining our ends and priorities;

  • they play a crucial role in the regulation of social life;

  • they protect us from an excessively slavish devotion to narrow conceptions of rationality;

  • they have a central place in moral education and the moral life.

VHS Inside the animal mind: Do animals have emotions?


The six emotions
The Six Emotions

  • Happiness

  • Surprise

  • Fear

  • Sadness

  • Anger

  • Disgust

    Any emotion a mixture

    Baron-Cohen reports

    412 emotions


Neuropsychology of emotion

Perception – Expression – Experience

Emotions are limbic contents? Or Processing differences?

Neuropsychology of Emotion


Neuropsychology of emotion models

Valence model: LH involved in positive emotions, RH negative emotions

LHD: catastrophic reactions (tears, despair, anger)

RHD: indifference reactions (unawareness, euphoria, no concern)

Partial out aphasia and neglect & anosognosia components?

Unihemispheric sedation (Wada) evidence

Contralateral disinhibition or subcortical release

Right Hemisphere model: RH has greater associations with subcortical structures and thus more involved in emotion

LVFA for emotions recognition (speed and accuracy)

holistic, perceptual, non-symbolic processing

Emotional tones recognized better in RH

due to low temporal frequency?

EXPRESSION

Emotions more intense on left side of face.

RHD less facially expressive (Borod, 1980)

Neuropsychology of Emotion (Models)




Need to partial out face recognition advantage of rh
Need to partial out expressiveface recognition advantage of RH


Schizophrenia start here
Schizophrenia –start here expressive

“Split Mind”

Disorders involving gross distortions of thoughts and perceptions and by loss of contact with reality


Scz the disorder of science and math
Scz – the Disorder of Science and Math expressive

Isaac Newton – suffered psychotic break

Albert Einstein – autistic traits, Scz son

John Nash Jr – chronic schizophrenia

Bertrand Russell

James Joyce’s daughter

Syd Barrett (of Pink Floyd) Shine on you crazy diamond

Socrates (perhaps, or TLE)


Types of schizophrenia

Paranoid expressive: Delusions or hallucinations often include extreme suspiciousness and hostility

Disorganized: Exhibit signs of illogical thinking and speech

Catatonic: Exhibit extremes in motor behavior

Undifferentiated: Do not clearly fit into a type

Catatonia

Types of Schizophrenia


Dsm iv criteria
DSM-IV Criteria expressive

  • Delusions

  • Hallucinations

  • Speech changes

  • Motor symptoms

  • Mood symptoms

  • Cognitive symptoms

    Must show 2 of following for 6 months


Positive negative symptoms
Positive & Negative Symptoms expressive

  • Positive Sx: cognitive, emotional, and behavioral excesses.

    • hallucinations, delusions, thought disorders, and bizarre behaviors.

  • Negative Sx: cognitive, emotional, and behavioral deficits.

    • apathy, flattened affect, social withdrawal, inattention, and slowed speech or no speech.


Schizophrenia rates
Schizophrenia rates expressive

  • 1% across all cultures, despite few offspring

  • Males = females or slightly more males

  • More in jails than psychiatric hospitals

  • 50% never accept that they are ill

    • 90% go off meds once+ (relapse within 3y)

  • Nearly 100% smoke (self-stimulation)

  • 40% attempt suicide, 10% succeed


Dominance failure leohard brugger 2000
Dominance Failure expressive (Leohard & Brugger, 2000)

  • Schizophrenia occurs across populations with same features, same frequency, suggests intrinsic to humanity

    • Fewer children (reduced ability to form relationships), but still here

      • some advantage for lesser forms

      • runs in families (chromosomal involvement, sex chromosomes?).

        • Gender differences: Earlier in males, less favorable outcome

  • Anatomical asymmetry reduced relative to normals

  • Functional asymmetry reduced in language processing (dichotic, LDT)

  • Psychosis as breakdown of certain language systems

    • Enhancement or inhibition of semantic/lexical representations

    • Decreased language lateralization leads to more severe hallucinations

    • Semantic disturbance in connectivity (associative strength) but not network size (number of associates)

    • Disruption of ‘indexicality’: distinguish thoughts from speech output or others’ speech

      Failure to inhibit the right hemisphere dominance?


Right hemisphere dysfunction
Right Hemisphere Dysfunction expressive

  • Right hemisphere’s role in self-awareness

    • Anosognosia

    • Prosopagnosia

    • emotional tones

    • reduplicative delusions

    • disordered ego boundary

    • lack of social awareness


Arthur wigan 1844

Observations on cerebral duality expressive

Wigan had an acquaintance who died rather suddenly. At postmortem, one cerebral hemisphere was missing. Wigan sought other examples and in 1844, after 20 years of collecting evidence, he published The Duality of the Mind in which he claimed that one hemisphere clearly sufficed to support a fully human mind.

… if… one brain . . . (is) capable of aII the emotion,. sentiments, and faculties, which we call in the aggregate, mind--then it necessarily follows that man must have two minds with two brains: and however intimate and perfect their unison in their natural state, they must occasionally be discrepant, when influenced by disease, either direct, sympathetic, or reflex.

Wigan developed a theory of mental illness and touched upon most of the implications for other social problems

Arthur Wigan, 1844


Handedness and autism
Handedness and Autism expressive

  • Dawson (1982;1986) no relation between handedness and speech laterality in autistics

  • 24.5% normals show mixed handedness

  • 53.0% autistics (similar % for schizophrenics at age 7)



Dissociation between language and intelligence
Dissociation between language and intelligence: expressive

  • Intact general intelligence but language impaired:

    • Aphasia patients

    • Children raised in isolation – e.g., Genie

  • Intact language but impaired intelligence

    • Hydrocephalus (retardation)

    • Williams syndrome

    • Autistic-savant syndrome




Spatial ability
Spatial Ability expressive



Theory of mind adult conceptions

Normal 3-year-olds representation –start here

Understand the ontological distinction between mind and world: thoughts and things are different types of entities.

Understand that mind is private: individuals' thoughts, dreams cannot be seen by others.

Possess rudimentary conceptions of beliefs and desires, and understand that individuals' actions are due to some combination of beliefs and desires. (goal-directed)

2-year-olds believe others' actions are influenced only by their desires.

Distinguish thinking from other mental activities like seeing, talking, desiring.

Understand that the contents of mind reflect those of the world.

However, 3-year-olds appear not to:

Possess causal understanding of thinking (~7).

Understand that contents of mind represent those of the world (~5).

ADULTS

Thoughts are different than things

Beliefs are different from actuality

Desires are different from outcomes

Fantasy is unconstrained by factuality

Mind is private and individual

Mind is not body

Reasoning about mind is different from reasoning about facts or physical states

Theory of Mind (Adult Conceptions)


Theory of mind adult conceptions1

ADULTS representation –start here

Thoughts are different than things

Beliefs are different from actuality

Desires are different from outcomes

Fantasy is unconstrained by factuality

Mind is private and individual

Mind is not body

Reasoning about mind is different from reasoning about facts or physical states

Theory of Mind (Adult Conceptions)



1 st order false belief test
(1 representation –start herest-order) False Belief Test


New theories of tom
New Theories of ‘ToM’ representation –start here

  • Modularity Theory:

    • A ‘ToM’ MODULE (Scholl & Leslie, 1999)

  • Bias towards paying attention to reality (Mitchell, 1997)

  • Gradual build up of knowledge of the world (Chandler, 1988)


Conclusion
Conclusion representation –start here

  • ToM develops throughout childhood

  • Exactly when ToM develops is disputed

  • Cognitive deficit theorists - age 4, sudden stage like change

  • Others - earlier/later, gradual change

  • Evidence theories must explain:

    • experiments on children and adults

    • naturalistic data

    • people with autism


Functional neuroimaging
Functional neuroimaging representation –start here

  • Right frontal lobe involved in deception detection, identify mind words

  • Other frontal areas, temporal poles, and superior temporal cortex also involved in some aspect



Primate differences in prefrontal cortex area 10
Primate Differences in Prefrontal Cortex (area 10) representation –start here

  • Brodmann’s area 10


Human chimp gibbon area 10 pfc
Human chimp gibbon Area 10 PFC representation –start here


Role of cingulate in mentalizing
Role of Cingulate in Mentalizing representation –start here

  • Maximum activity in the anterior cingulate cortex found to be associated with autonomic arousal, cognitive demand and response conflict displayed with the same data from theory-of-mind studies in the anterior paracingulate cortex.


Maximum activity in anterior paracingulate cortex when subjects adopted an intentional stance

Stone, paper, scissors against human or computer representation –start here

Random sequence, but imagined an ‘intentional stance’ in playing human

Maximum activity in anterior paracingulate cortex when subjects adopted an ‘intentional stance’



Neuroimaging of eye gaze
Neuroimaging of eye gaze representation –start here


Misidentification reduplication syndromes altered relatedness to people objects events experiences
Misidentification/Reduplication Syndromes representation –start herealtered relatedness to people, objects, events, experiences

  • Capgras – hypoidentification

    • identify people close to them as being imposters, replicas.

  • Fregoli – hyperidentification

    • excessive connections or hyperactive connections between facial recognition centers and amygdala, perhaps

Fregoli


Duplication disorders
Duplication disorders representation –start here


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