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Equipment Efficiency: Availability, P erformance and M aintenance. Operations Analysis and Improvement 2010 Fall Dr. Tai-Yue Wang Industrial and Information Management Department National Cheng Kung University. Presentation.

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equipment efficiency availability p erformance and m aintenance

Equipment Efficiency:Availability, Performanceand Maintenance

Operations Analysis and Improvement

2010 Fall

Dr. Tai-Yue Wang

Industrial and Information Management Department

National Cheng Kung University

presentation
Presentation
  • The role of maintenance is to insure the survivability and proper functioning of all company hardware.
    • Most maintenance departments are considered “a necessary evil”.
      • Investments required to improve production processes usually take on a low priority.
presentation1
Presentation
  • Maintenance evolution, as well as maintenance technique evolution, has developed in parallel for many companies.
    • Remediate hardware failures.
    • Prevent future problems with the equipment.
    • Incorporate basic maintenance tasks into their daily production routine.
    • Predicting equipment breakdowns.
introduction
Introduction
  • Maintenance’s primary objective is to maintain, at a high operative level, the productive resources in order to assure their service at an expected cost.
  • Maintenance is the “machine’s medicine”.
  • Determine the right moment to replace the equipment.
    • It may be better to simply unplug it.
introduction1

Thinking

revolution

The 5S

Visual Control

Workforce optimization

Standard

operations

Poka-Yoke

Jidoka

1

20

11

12

9

TPM

One-Piece

flow

Multi-

functional

workers

7

16

5

14

Leveling

Production

Kanban

SMED

4

6

17

8

JUST IN TIME

15

18

19

13

10

3

2

Introduction
  • Elements that need maintenance.
    • Machines and tools.
    • Facilities (compressed air, heating,…)
    • Buildings (walls, illumination,…)
    • Information and transportation systems.
introduction2

Thinking

revolution

The 5S

Visual Control

Workforce optimization

Standard

operations

Poka-Yoke

Jidoka

1

20

11

12

9

TPM

One-Piece

flow

Multi-

functional

workers

7

16

5

14

Leveling

Production

Kanban

SMED

4

6

17

8

JUST IN TIME

15

18

19

13

10

3

2

Introduction
  • Some companies subcontract maintenance.
  • Is contemplated in both the Just-in-time and the 20 keys (key number 9) for lean.
    • Improves the availability and performance rates of the equipment.
types of maintenance
Types of maintenance
  • Corrective -> All industrial equipment is exposed to transitory (wear) or definitive breakdowns (catastrophic failure).
    • Affecting its functionality and performance.
    • Can represent high costs for enterprises.
  • Preventive -> The maintenance mission cannot only be repairing the breakdowns.
    • They should be able to get ahead of the breakdowns.
corrective maintenance
Corrective maintenance
  • Also called breakdown maintenance.
    • Up to the 1950s it was virtually the only maintenance.
      • Machine stoppages hardly affected productive time.
      • Repairs were carried out in an effective way.
types of corrective maintenance
Types of corrective maintenance
  • Urgent repairs.
    • Reestablishing the equipment into service.
    • Repair is carried out is temperally.
    • The remainder of the tasks will/can be scheduled for a future time.
types of corrective maintenance1
Types of corrective maintenance
  • Scheduled corrective.
    • Appears as a result of urgent repairs.
      • Determine an appropriate time to repair the machine completely.
      • After repairing the damaged component
        • As good as new.
        • At least as it was before.
repair problems
Repair problems
  • Repair tasks are performed quickly and under pressure, which can cause future problems.
  • Repair time can be very high because replacement part(s) may have to be ordered from a supplier.
repair problems1
Repair problems
  • Accidents can take place because of poor maintenance safety measures.
  • Corrective maintenance policy implies higher labor costs.
    • This policy can be justified in some cases.
      • Equipment with a frequent replacement policy.
        • Like personal office computers.
    • When breakdown costs are small.
      • Light bulbs fail.
types of preventive maintenance
Types of preventive maintenance
  • The preventive maintenance has two variants.
    • Systematic preventive maintenance.
    • Conditional preventive maintenance or predictive maintenance.
systematic preventive maintenance
Systematic preventive maintenance
  • 1960s -> the General Electric Corporation systematized a new type of maintenance called planned maintenance.
systematic preventive maintenance1
Systematic preventive maintenance
  • Planned maintenance arrived to Japan.
    • The bases of this systematic preventive maintenance process were established.
      • Systematic substitution of some machine components.
systematic preventive maintenance2
Systematic preventive maintenance
  • Applied to general wear or use components.
    • Know with precision the component’s performance characteristics.
systematic preventive maintenance3
Systematic preventive maintenance
  • Replacement policy might call for a component to be replaced every week or in other ways such as, every 300 working hours or every 1000 parts produced.
conditional preventive maintenance
Conditional preventive maintenance
  • Also called predictive maintenance.
  • Systematic preventive maintenance can become very expensive.
conditional preventive maintenance1
Conditional preventive maintenance
  • Conditional preventive maintenance is used to change components depending on their current state.
    • The useful life for costly components can be extended.
  • This type of maintenance best fits components where performance can be monitored.
conditional preventive maintenance2
Conditional preventive maintenance
  • ISO 14000 (environmental norm) requires that industry avoid systematic preventive maintenance when working with environmentally harmful products.
conditional preventive maintenance3
Conditional preventive maintenance
  • Predictive maintenance.
    • Look for correlations between multiple parameters and the degradation of a component.
      • Temperature (thermocouples),
      • Noises (phonometer).
      • Cracks (X-rays machine).
      • Pressure losses (manometer).
    • QS9000 recommends predictive maintenance.
maintenance program implementation
Maintenance program implementation
  • Almost all machines follow a similar lifecycle.
    • Hidden small defects.
      • Difficult to detect and to observe -> It does not interfere with functionality.
        • Increase of friction in an axle.
    • Apparent small defects.
      • Are more noticeable-> They are normally not repaired.
        • Small vibrations on a machine.
maintenance program implementation1
Maintenance program implementation
  • Execution under expectations.
    • The defects affect the equipment productivity.
    • the standards of quality will be violated.
maintenance program implementation2
Maintenance program implementation
  • Almost all machines follow a similar lifecycle.
    • Intermittent stops.
      • The machine intermittently produces defect parts.
      • Small repairs are performed.
    • Stops and breakdowns.
      • Breakdowns are frequent.
  • Production equipment may not be as new as we would like them to be.
    • “Stops and breakdown” stage.
maintenance program implementation3
Maintenance program implementation
  • Production equipment typically becomes more sophisticated/complex.
    • More expensive every year.
    • It has greater economic impact.
      • Repairs should be done at a faster rate.
  • Working shifts can also represent an obstacle for maintenance interventions.
    • Limits possible maintenance tasks and scheduling.
maintenance program implementation4
Maintenance program implementation
  • The objective of maintenance is to efficiently oversee equipment throughout the equipment life cycle.
    • Cover the entire lifecycle
      • Implementing an effective corrective maintenance.
      • Preventive maintenance tasks.
      • Implementing predictive maintenance strategies.
getting started
Getting started
  • Become familiar with the resources that will require maintenance.
    • Each maintained resource should be coded (resource id#).
  • Code the types of breakdowns and maintenance tasks.
    • In a historical data study -> Group failure causes.
getting started1
Getting started
  • Maintenance should have the following two documents.
    • Facility Inventory.
      • Lists all equipments and their principle characteristics.
        • Code, record number, equipment type,…
    • Equipment History Files.
      • Data given by the equipment manufacturer.
      • Information about the location in the plant.
      • Types of spare parts needed.
corrective maintenance implementation
Corrective maintenance implementation
  • Organize, in an effective way, the corrective maintenance procedures and actions.
    • Breakdown occurs -> Fill out a breakdown work order.
      • If the worker can solve it -> fill a report.
      • If not -> the work order will be sent to the maintenance department.
        • Work request order will be issued.
        • Maintenance workers will either repair the machine immediately or will schedule the repair.
        • The repair can be provisional or definitive.
scheduled corrective maintenance
Scheduled corrective maintenance
  • Variability in the corrective maintenance tasks duration can be problematic.
    • Corrective orders and flow diagrams for repetitive repairs must be developed.
      • Materials and spare parts that should be utilized.
  • Maintenance workers’ tasks do not end with the equipment repair.
    • They should gather all the breakdown information.
    • Describe the process that was performed.
scheduled corrective maintenance1
Scheduled corrective maintenance
  • Each machine should have its own file with breakdown records.
    • Analyze breakdown causes.
    • Anticipate future problems.
    • This file must be upgraded with each maintenance intervention.
scheduled corrective maintenance2
Scheduled corrective maintenance
  • Corrective maintenance tasks do not only consist on changing the broken or malfunctioning components.
    • Study the causes and the frequency of the breakdowns.
preventive maintenance implementation
Preventive maintenance implementation
  • Avoid a breakdown of any resource, while keeping maintenance cost as low as possible.
  • Two types of actions.
    • Inspections.
      • Observe and detect possible anomalies.
        • Frequent checkups that follow a specific inspection plan.
    • Revisions.
      • Scheduled equipment stops.
        • Systematic substitution of several machine components.
        • Carried out during the weekend.
preventive maintenance implementation1
Preventive maintenance implementation
  • Preventive maintenance tasks’ scheduling is mandatory in the ISO norms.
preventive maintenance implementation2
Preventive maintenance implementation
  • These tasks can be planned daily, weekly, monthly or even annually.
    • Scheduled at times when they do not affect the factory’s production plan.
    • Daily working problems force us to continuously reschedule these tasks.
preventive maintenance implementation3
Preventive maintenance implementation
  • Equipment preventive maintenance tasks are also called PM orders.
    • Each PM order should be based on a study of the equipment breakdown causes.
      • FMEA tool described at the tools section.
autonomous maintenance
Autonomous maintenance
  • PM orders carried out by the production workers.
    • Known as user maintenance orders.
  • They should be simple and graphically represented.
    • Many inspection tasks should be carried out every day.
autonomous maintenance1
Autonomous maintenance
  • Significant amount of notices that could be easily handled by the production worker.
    • It takes more time to fill out the request order than to fix the problem
autonomous maintenance2
Autonomous maintenance
  • Autonomous maintenance includes these small tasks and three daily preventive measures.
    • Cleaning, lubricating and checking.
autonomous maintenance safety
Autonomous maintenance. Safety
  • Safety is one of the most important restrictions.
    • Autonomous tasks apply only for simple repair operations.
  • Repair or maintenance should never be performed if the knowledge required to fix the machine is high.
autonomous maintenance safety1
Autonomous maintenance. Safety
  • It can be very challenging to convince production workers about the importance of maintenance tasks.
    • They do not consider their responsibility.
autonomous maintenance3

Autonomous Supervision

7

Process Quality Assurance

6

Autonomous Maintenance Standards

5

Overall inspections

4

Cleaning and Lubricating Standards

3

Countermeasures to Sources of Contamination

2

1

Initial cleaning

Autonomous maintenance
  • Autonomous maintenance implementation process has a specific methodology.
tpm total productive maintenance
TPM - Total Productive Maintenance
  • In the 1970s, Nakajima developed in Japan TPM.
    • New maintenance management philosophy.
  • English translation was not published until 1988.
    • JIPM – Japanese Institute of Plants Maintenance.
      • Grants the PM prize to the TPM top excellent companies.
        • 60% of the winning companies during the first 17 years are now part of the Toyota Group or suppliers of this Group.
tpm total productive maintenance1
TPM - Total Productive Maintenance
  • Nakajima combined preventive maintenance theories with the total quality concept.
    • Nakajima developed the Overall Equipment Efficiency ratio.
tpm keys
TPM keys
  • Maximize the Overall Equipment Efficiency.
    • Eliminating the six big losses.
  • Autonomous maintenance implementation.
    • In order to terminate the “I operate, you repair” mind set.
  • Preventive engineering.
    • Improving the equipments’ maintainability.
tpm keys1
TPM keys
  • Training workers for maintenance improvements.
    • Propose methods for increasing the equipment availability.
  • Initial equipment management.
  • The objective of the TPM -> Zero Breakdowns.
    • Utilize tools such as the P-M analysis -> Explained in tools section.
rcm reliability centered maintenance
RCM - Reliability Centered Maintenance
  • RCM was created in the United States in the 1960s, to optimize the reliability of aeronautical equipment.
    • RCM was not utilized in nuclear power stations until the 1980s.
    • Recently has been implemented in the industrial world.
rcm reliability centered maintenance1
RCM - Reliability Centered Maintenance
  • Needs a complete maintenance and breakdown record for each item of equipment.
    • RCM objective is to determine the maintenance tasks that are more effective for the critical components.
      • FMEA, reliability analysis, statistical techniques.
    • It is necessary to have a preventive maintenance program implemented and running properly.
fmea for equipment
FMEA for equipment
  • All defects have a root cause, and to eliminate future defects an action must be carried out.
    • Defect -> Gap between two elements
    • Cause -> Lack of lubrication or a loose fastener.
    • Action -> Grease or tighten the lose element.
fmea for equipment1
FMEA for equipment
  • To determine a good preventive maintenance plan, all the possible breakdowns, their causes and their corrective actions must be analyzed.
    • The main tool to carry out this type of analysis is the FMEA for equipment (Failure Mode and Effects Analysis).
      • Is a guide to analyze, in an organized manner, causes of possible equipment breakdowns.
      • A group of workers is gathered to study the problems and failures
fmea for equipment3
FMEA for equipment
  • Equipment functions.
    • The functions that the equipment carries out.
      • Provides compressed air during specific conditions.
  • Failure modes.
    • All the possible ways that the equipment can be forced to stop.
      • Breaks, blockage, leaks, etc.
fmea for equipment4
FMEA for equipment
  • Failure effects.
    • All possible consequences of each failure are analyzed in detail.
      • Severity (S).
        • 1 being not very serious.
        • 4 very serious or 10.
fmea for equipment5
FMEA for equipment
  • Failure causes.
    • The origin of the failure is analyzed.
    • Identify the anomaly that can lead to the failure.
      • Probability (P).
        • 1 not very frequent.
        • 4 very frequent or 10.
fmea for equipment6
FMEA for equipment
  • Actual controls.
    • If, at the present time, some kind of control is carried out.
    • Detection (D)
      • 1 if the control does not always detect the cause
      • 4 if it always detects or 10.
fmea for equipment7
FMEA for equipment
  • After the first part of the FMEA table has been completed, the Risk Priority Number (RPN) is calculated.
    • The product of the three quantified variables (S, P and D).
    • Ranking failures by RPN.
      • Analyze the causes that do not represent any threat.
      • Special attention must be paid to those effects that have been considered critical.
fmea for equipment8
FMEA for equipment
  • The chosen plan of action and the employee responsible for carrying out this plan are registered in the same table utilized in the FMEA.
    • After a FMEA application arises, the necessity of developing a preventive maintenance plan is recommended.
fmea for equipment9
FMEA for equipment
  • Preventive maintenance intervention periods (T).
    • Know the component damage/wear behavior curve.
      • Breakdowns and the time when the breakdowns occurred -> Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF).
    • T is based on the corrective percentage that the company would like to support (K).
reliability
Reliability
  • Reliability is defined as the probability that an equipment will work satisfactorily, during a certain period of time under some specific working conditions.
  • Reliability is a probability.
    • Relative frequency of breakdowns.
reliability1
Reliability
  • All production equipment should work satisfactorily.
    • Failure can be triggered by an abrupt change in the component characteristic or by progressive damage.
  • Work satisfactorily for a specific period of time.
    • Maintain quality standards during a reasonable period of time.
      • RELIABILITY = QUALITY + TIME
reliability2
Reliability
  • The component life or equipment life duration depends on working conditions.
    • Environmental (temperature or humidity).
    • Operational (continuous starts and stops, electrical strain).
reliability3
Reliability
  • The system state depends on the primary group of elements that makes it work properly.
    • Each element has a random lifetime.
      • Estimate the lifetime of the components.
  • Reliability -> MBTF (Mean Time Between Failure)
reliability and maintainability
Reliability and Maintainability
  • Maintainability -> probability that it must be repaired in a predetermined time following a specific repair procedure.
reliability and maintainability1
Reliability and Maintainability
  • Maintainability depends on different factors.
    • Machine factors.
      • Accessibility or interchangeability among components.
    • Organizational factors.
      • Maintenance staff knowledge, documentation availability,…
    • Operative factors.
      • Ability of the manpower.
  • Is quantified through the MTTR (Mean Time To Recovery).
reliability and statistical availability
Reliability and Statistical availability
  • Average between the middle time used in the equipment and the required production time
  • If the different times between breakdowns as well as each repair duration time are graphically represented this process.
reliability the bathtub curve
Reliability - the Bathtub curve
  • Is a graphic representation of the failure rate l(t).
    • Probability that an element fails depending on its life use stage or status.
      • ZONE I. Infant period.
      • ZONE II. Useful period.
      • ZONE III. Waste period.
reliability the bathtub curve zone i
Reliability – The bathtub curve: Zone I
  • Equipment set up and debug process.
  • Goes downhill because, as time moves forward, the probability of a component failure decreases.
  • The problems in this area can be avoided by making intensive tests or by exchanging troublemaker elements at an early stage adjustment period.
reliability the bathtub curve zone ii
Reliability – The bathtub curve: Zone II
  • Zone II.
    • Failures randomly appear.
    • Electronic systems.
      • The curve formed is virtually horizontal.
    • In mechanical systems.
      • The curve normally has a slightly positive slope.
reliability the bathtub curve zone iii
Reliability – The bathtub curve: Zone III
  • Zone III.
    • Failures come from components far more quickly.
    • Critical components replacement is strongly recommended.
p m analysis
P-M Analysis
  • Defects reasons.
    • Sporadic(零星) losses.
    • Chronic(慢性) losses.
  • Sporadic losses can be corrected using tools already studied.
p m analysis1
P-M Analysis
  • The P-M analysis is responsible for eliminating chronic losses.
    • Considered “natural” according to their root sources.
    • P - > Phenomenon.
    • M - > Mechanism.
p m analysis2
P-M Analysis
  • Reliability that has been studied has two aspects to consider.
    • Intrinsic reliability.
      • Due to the design and production of the component.
    • Operative reliability.
      • Due to the component use and the maintenance process.
p m analysis3
P-M Analysis
  • P-M analysis should be applied after conventional improvement.
  • Six sigma is also suitable to carry out this type of study.
maintenance management
Maintenance management
  • A maintenance department should properly manage and control their costs.
  • Unlimited number of indicators that can be used for maintenance department performance.
    • Manpower performance, hours dedicated to urgent work, repair cost, availability,...
maintenance management1
Maintenance management
  • Maintenance management is a difficult task because it frequently does not have management’s support.
    • As long as the maintenance department does not exceed its assigned budget, no one pays much attention to the maintenance department activities or expenses.
maintenance costs
Maintenance costs
  • Using economic terms, maintenance management helps to control deviations in the firm’s budget and also to determine investment needs to reduce the costs.
maintenance costs1
Maintenance costs
  • There are two alternatives or opposing costs.
    • Non-maintenance costs.
      • Opportunity costs, quality costs, production manpower cost, etc.
    • Maintenance costs.
      • Breakdown prevention costs, anomalies detection cost, inspection resources costs, etc.
maintenance costs2
Maintenance costs
  • (1) -> Maintenance investment increases the equipment availability and at the same time
  • (2) -> An increase of the availability, supposes large investments.
summary
Summary
  • This chapter has provided an overview of maintenance activities, a critical aspect of Lean Manufacturing. Maintenance planning and monitoring activities are critical factors for Lean Enterprise efficiency.
summary1
Summary
  • Unfortunately, maintenance is normally perceived as a necessary evil, and is not always seen as a critical engineering activity. This chapter has outlined some of the maintenance policies and procedures that can be used to obtain the goal for any production system: operate as efficient as possible at the lowest cost.