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Colonial Life. Creation of an “American Identity” in the Era of Benign Neglect. I. Restoration Colonies. A. Middle Colonies. 1. Middle colonies NY, NJ, PENN, DEL, MD 2. Multicultural, tolerant Dutch influence. B. Southern (Proprietary). Carolinas 1670s race ratio Georgia 1732

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colonial life

Colonial Life

Creation of an “American Identity” in the Era of Benign Neglect

a middle colonies
A. Middle Colonies

1. Middle colonies

NY, NJ, PENN, DEL, MD

2. Multicultural, tolerant

Dutch influence

b southern proprietary
B. Southern (Proprietary)
  • Carolinas 1670srace ratio
  • Georgia1732

social experimentbuffer zone

Oglethorpe

a lower south
A. Lower South
  • World contact1730s - rice & indigo production
  • Absentee landlords

Caribbean influenceSea Islands

b chesapeake
B. Chesapeake
  • Market agriculture

tobacco

imports

c new england
C. New England
  • Least dependent on Britain

2. Net exporter

timber, fish to West Indies

Slave trade

d middle colonies
D. Middle Colonies
  • Breadbasket
  • Cosmopolitan centersNY, Philadelphia
  • “Best poor man’s country”
a planter society
A. Planter Society
  • Early 1700s: white labor drying up

Pressure to move west

2. Growth of slavery1700: 13%1776: 40%

slide13
4. Few population centers

5. Lack of skilled (free) labor

Labor Ideology

b slave culture
B. Slave Culture
  • Seasoning / isolation
slide15
2. CommunitylanguagesGullah “Mus tek cyear a de root fa heal de tree.”

- religion participatory equality before God

slide17
4. The Price of Slavery

militant culture

gender gap

limited economic development

limited democratization

c northern middle colonies
C. Northern/Middle colonies
  • New opportunitieseconomic status
slide19
2. Population explosion

1688: 225K 1775: 2.5M 500K (black)

  • Why?- cheap land, tolerance, skilled labor
  • Ethnic diversity

Scots-Irish, Welsh, Germans, French

colonial experience american identity
Colonial experience, American identity

Interdependence ties together colonies

Social patterns erode European traditions

Opportunities add to sense of entitlement

i 1700s age of reason

I. 1700s: Age of Reason

“Enlightenment”

The search for rational basis of law, government, education, philosophy, nature.

a 1500s 1600s religion
A. 1500s-1600s: Religion
  • Waroppressionextremism

Divine Right of Kings

b rational self interest
B. Rational self-interest
  • Intellectuals repulsed by Salem
  • “Self-made” mensouthern planters, northern merchants, free farmers
c rational appeal
C. Rational appeal
  • Rationalism/skepticism

2. Optimism

3. Natural Law

d the english connection
D. The English Connection

1. Isaac Newton

1687 – Principia Mathematica

Natural Law

Religious authority

slide27
2. John Locke

Glorious Revolution

1689 – Essay Concerning Human Understanding

“tabula rasa”

slide28
1690 – Two Treatises on Government

Contract Theory

“Natural Rights” Life, Liberty, Property

English Liberalism

a intelligentsia
A. Intelligentsia

1. Urban dwellers/planters

b churches
B. Churches
  • Deism

Harvard theologians - “liberal” ProtestantismInnate evil?

Innate authority?

c american perspective
C. American perspective
  • Tradition v. usefulnesspragmatism

Benjamin Franklin

  • active, confident, improving
  • Voluntary Associations
  • Self-education
  • Social improvement
a r evivals 1734 1775
A. Revivals 1734-1775

1. Anglicans = George Whitfield Methodists = John Wesley Presbyterians = Gilbert Tennant

slide35
2. Jonathan EdwardsSinners in the Hands of an Angry God, 1741

- revive Calvinism God-centered universe predestination America cannot shirk its destiny

- detested “money-grubbers” moral relativism

b causes
B. Causes
  • Economic frustration / competition“River Gods”
  • Women
c revivalism
C. Revivalism
  • American-style Protestantismalways looking for converts

2. Blends religion & politics

1760s Connecticut: Old Lights v. New Lights

slide38
3. Denominationalism: religious pluralism- end of state-supported churches - revivals split churches - breaks political power of churches
d cultural basis of revolution
D. Cultural basis of Revolution
  • Required no education: egalitarian
  • Gave poorer, rural colonists commonexperience
  • Experience was anti-authoritarian
slide40
4. Gave colonists common enemySatan “Millennialism”

King of France (Catholic) King of England

the seven years war 1756 63
The Seven Years War,1756-63

War for Empire and the Rise of American Nationalism

i background
I. Background

Britain & France

Colonial / mercantile competition

a distinctive colonization
A. Distinctive colonization
  • British have numbers
  • French have more Indian allies
  • British colonists imbued w/ Millennialism
b an american conflict
B. An “American” conflict
  • 1754 – Albany Plan of Unionbased on Iroquois Confederacy
  • Unification fails

Britain’s responsibility

slide45
3. 1757 – Pitt the Elder“at His Majesty’s Expense”

30,000 British troops20,000 colonial (militias)

4. Appeal crossed class boundaries

a british losses
A. British losses
  • 1758 – negotiations w/ Eastern Tribes
b british successes
B. British successes

1. 1759, Quebec 1760, Montreal

c angry colonists
C. Angry colonists
  • Pontiac’s Rebellion, 1762-64

2. Proclamation Line of 1763

d cultural impact of the war
D. Cultural impact of the war
  • Benign neglect

- Americans did not take orders well - shocked at treatment of British soldiers

2. Great Awakening- shocked by Brit conscripts

3. National identity – 4x trade, colonial “mixing” newspaper popularity

end of benign neglect
End of Benign Neglect

Navigation Acts (1664)

1763

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