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Nuclear Non-Proliferation and Nuclear Disarment Benchmark One. Critical Issues Forum 2009-2010 Center for Nonproliferation Studies Monterey Institute of International Studies. La Puente High School La Puente, California. Authors. Stephanie Ayon Adan Gonzalez

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Nuclear Non-Proliferation and Nuclear Disarment

Benchmark One

Critical Issues Forum 2009-2010

Center for Nonproliferation Studies

Monterey Institute of International Studies

La Puente High School

La Puente, California

  • Stephanie Ayon
  • Adan Gonzalez
  • Elizabeth Jimenez
  • Rigoberto Lopez
  • Arthur Ortiz
  • Cesar Torres
  • Advisor
  • Mr. Andrew King


Following the Second World War, both the United States and Soviet Union engaged in a nuclear arms race to develop a superior weapons system. Since 1948, with the destruction of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the United States had been the only country to have possessed and used a nuclear weapon. To maintain its nuclear supremacy, the United States further developed new long range bombers as a means of delivering their nuclear weapons. [1]

The United States’ nuclear monopoly was short-lived with the detonation of the Soviet Union’s first atomic weapon in 1949. The detonation of the RDS-1 (aka First Lightning, Joe 1) asserted the Soviet Union’s rise to nuclear prominence. Coupled with the divergent ideologies of Capitalism and Communism, the nuclear age signaled the beginning of the Cold War. [2]

Throughout the second half of the 20th century, the United States and the Soviet Union engaged in nuclear posturing resulting in the massive increase of their nuclear stockpiles and delivery systems. In that time, the United Kingdom, France, China, India, and Pakistan developed nuclear capabilities, resulting in the proliferation of nuclear weapons.

Despite the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, and the bilateral and multilateral agreements to reduce and disarm their nuclear stockpiles, both the United States and the Russian Federation continue to consider nuclear weapons as a means of national defense. Their continuing refusal to dismantle their nuclear arsenals threatens the goals of the Non-Proliferation Treaty, and our hopes for a nuclear weapons free world.

In an effort to educate others about the history and dangers of nuclear proliferation, this paper will discuss: 1)The History of Nuclear Weapons, 2) The Types of Nuclear Weapons, 3) The Process of Nuclear Enrichment and the Nuclear Fuel Cycle, 4)The Effects of Nuclear Weapons, 5) The Nuclear Treaties, and 6) The Current Challenges to Nonproliferation.




Purpose for Original Development



The original development of Nuclear Energy in Germany began in April 1939, right after the discovery of nuclear fission in January. The Germans intended on using nuclear energy to sway the Pacific theatre of WWII in their favor. [1]

The original development of Nuclear weapons began in Japan during WWII. The development was in response to the apparent threat of its enemies (mainly the US).[2]

[1] German nuclear energy project. (2010, January 16). Retrieved from

[2] Tale of two cities: Hiroshima and Nagasaki. (2010, January 16). Retrieved from

the manhattan project
The Manhattan project
  • The Manhattan project was initiated in June 1942, when Vannever Bush gave informed President Roosevelt that is was possible to create an atomic bomb in time to influence the outcome World War II. Colonel James C. Marshall was directed to form a new engineer district, and Colonel Leslie R. Groves was the Deputy Chief of the construction of the district. Groves would later replace Marshal and is credited with the launch of the project.
  • Three major uranium enrichment plants were then built in Oak Ridge Tennessee, Which were code-named Y-12, K-25 and S-50. The Y-12 plant produced all of the enriched uranium needed for the first atomic bomb.
  • In October 15, 1942 General Groves appoints J. Robert Oppenheimer as the Director of a new bomb design laboratory, who then chose the Los Alamos site in New Mexico. Under the Manhattan project the Los Alamos site served as the main nuclear weapon design and production facility. Under Oppenheimer's guidance, the laboratories at Los Alamos were constructed. [2]
  • [1]
  • [2] Loeber, C.R. (2005). Building the bomb: a history of the nuclear weapons complex. Albuquerque, New Mexico: Sandia National Laboratories.

the manhattan project9
The Manhattan project
  • There, he brought the best minds in physics to work on the problem of creating an atomic bomb. In the end, he was managing more than 3,000 people, as well as tackling theoretical and mechanical problems that arose. He is often referred to as the "father" of the atomic bomb. The joint work of the scientists at Los Alamos resulted in the first nuclear explosion at Alamogordo on July 16, 1945, which Oppenheimer named "Trinity."[1]
  • The interim committee recommended that the atomic bomb used against Japan on a dual target and to be used without warning.
  • In spite of the scientific hurdles the project met its objective. On July 16, 1945 the first atomic bomb was detonated, and two different designs were developed the Little Boy and Fat Man.


[2] Loeber, C.R. (2005). Building the bomb: a history of the nuclear weapons complex. Albuquerque, New Mexico: Sandia National Laboratories.


Little Boy

Fat Man

2nd bomb launched by the United States [4]

Implosion type bomb [1]

Sent to attack Nagasaki [1]

Killed , 74,000 of the 286,000 people living in Nagasaki at the time of the blast, meanwhile 75,000 ended with severe injuries. [4]

Success at helping to end WW2 [5]

Constructed in 1945 [3]

1st bomb launched by US [2]

Successful launch

Detonated on Aug. 6, 1945

Sent to attack Hiroshima [3]

Success at showing the devastating power

In an instant, 80,000 to 140,000 people were killed and 100,000 more were seriously injured. [2]

[1] "fat man" atomic bomb. (2010, January 16). Retrieved from

[2] Little Boy. (2010, February 25). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 23:43, February 25, 2010, from

[3] "little boy" atomic bomb. (2010, January 16). Retrieved from

[4] Fat Man. (2010, February 22). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 00:10, February 26, 2010, from

[5] Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. (2010, February 14). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 00:19, February 26, 2010, from



Little Boy: A Gun-Type Bomb

The Little Boy bomb design consisted of a gun that fired one mass of uranium 235 at another mass of uranium 235, therefore creating a supercritical mass. However a problem and crucial requirement, was that the uranium pieces had to be brought together in a time shorter time than the time between spontaneous fissions. Once the two pieces of uranium are brought together, the initiator introduces a burst of neutrons and the chain reaction begins, continuing until the energy released becomes so great that the bomb simply blows itself apart. [1][2]





The Raw Materials

Uranium is a silvery white metallic chemical element. In nature it only comes in U-238, U-235 and U-234. American Scientists estimate that Uranium needs to be refined to a concentration of at least 80 percent U-235 to be at weapons grade. In order to refine Uranium at such a high concentration, it must be refined by the Nuclear Fuel cycle.


Uranium Mining and Milling

Uranium ores can be excavated and mined from the ground by an open pit or an underground mine.

Milling extracts the Uranium from the ore. It produces a Uranium oxide concentrate which is referred to as “yellow cake” and generally contains more then 80% uranium.

The remaining material becomes tailings. These are radioactive and are separated from the public.

Nguyen, T. (2009, September 22). Why Its so hard to make nuclear weapons. Retrieved from



Conversion and Enrichment

The uranium oxide product of a Uranium mill is not directly usable as a fuel for a nuclear reactor. and only .7% is “fissile”, or capable of fission. This form is Uranium-235. The rest is U-238.

For most reactors the U-235 isotopes have to be increased by 3.5%-5% to achieve critical mass. This is done by enrichment.

Enrichment separates gaseous Uranium into two streams. Uranium is piped into a cylinder which is then spun at 100,000rpm. The rotation causes a centrifugal force that leaves the heavier U-238 isotopes at the walls of the centrifuge, while the lighter U-235 isotopes are left at the center. The enriched Uranium can then be used for Nuclear weapons or fuel reactors while the depleted is sent to the MOX fuel fabrication facility.

The product at this stage of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle is enriched Uranium hexafluoride.

Nguyen, T. (2009, September 22). Why Its so hard to make nuclear weapons. Retrieved from


Types of Nuclear Weapons

There are two types of Nuclear weapons: Fission bombs and Fusion bombs [1]

Fission Bomb [3]

Fusion Bomb[2]





Nuclear Fission

A chain reaction refers to a process in which neutrons released in fission produce an additional fission in at least one further nucleus. [1]

This nucleus in turn produces neutrons, and the process repeats. The process may be controlled (nuclear power) or uncontrolled (nuclear weapons). [1][2]

At the point where the chain reaction can become self-sustaining, this is referred to as critical mass.[1]

When a nucleus fissions, it splits into several smaller fragments. These fragments, or fission products, are about equal to half the original mass. Two or three neutrons are also emitted. [3]




[image 1]

[image 2]


Nuclear Fusion

The fusion bomb is a lot different from fission bombs, in that they are much more advanced and also much more devastating. However, fusion bombs use both fission and fusion. Due to the high temperature required for fusion, a fission reaction occurs first to provide the necessary energy required for fusion to take place.

Fission usually takes place in a material such as lithium. A neutron reacts with lithium-6 to make the form of hydrogen known as H-3 or tritium. Next, these molecules join with H-2 (deuterium). When this happens, helium is produced, along with neutrons and energy in the form of alpha particles.

This type of bomb is known as a hydrogen bomb.[1]




The Reactor

In the reactor the nuclei of the u-235 splits, releasing energy. This energy heats up water to create steam. The steam powers a turbine and a generator. Powering up any device or outlet connected to the generator.

Nguyen, T. (2009, September 22). Why Its so hard to make nuclear weapons. Retrieved from



The nuclear fuel rods are either stored for re processing.

The uranium can also be used as the chemical reaction for the warhead of a nuclear bomb.

According to scientist you need about 33 pounds of enriched uranium for a working nuclear bomb.

To be used as the fissile core of a nuclear weapon, the uranium has to be enriched to more than 90 per cent and be produced in large quantities.

“little boy”, the nuclear bomb detonated in Japan, used 140 pounds of enriched uranium.

Nguyen, T. (2009, September 22). Why Its so hard to make nuclear weapons. Retrieved from


Fuel Fabrication

Reactor fuel is generally in the form of ceramic pellets. These are formed from pressed uranium oxide which is sintered (baked) at a high temperature over 1400c (2552f).

The pellets are then encased in metal tubes to form fuel rods, which are arranged into a fuel assembly ready for introduction into a reactor.

In a fuel fabrication plant great care is taken with the size and shape of processing fuel rods to avoid a radiation leak.

Nguyen, T. (2009, September 22). Why Its so hard to make nuclear weapons. Retrieved from


Using the Uranium in a Nuclear Bomb

Nuclear fission

The act of splitting the atom of a molecule. Nuclear fission produces energy for nuclear bombs.

This is possible when nuclear fuels, such as 3.5%-5% U-235, undergo fission when struck by free neutrons and in turn generate more neutrons when they break apart.

This creates a chain reaction of elements breaking apart releasing energy, more precisely explosions.

One fission explosion releases about 2 hundred million Ev, as compared to only a few Ev from a 100 pound TnT explosion.

The difficulty in splitting the atom is that you must first compact about 100 pounds of TnT around a sphere of enriched uranium. Which is already unstable, so a mistake could result in an atomic explosion.

Nguyen, T. (2009, September 22). Why Its so hard to make nuclear weapons. Retrieved from


Effects of Nuclear Weapons

The energy released from a nuclear weapon detonated in the troposphere can be divided into four basic categories.

Blast—40-50% of total energy

Thermal radiation—30-50% of total energy

Ionizing radiation—5% of total energy

Residual radiation—5-10% of total energy[1]




The major incendiary effect of nuclear explosions is caused by the blast wave.

An estimate of the size of the damage caused by the Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. A modern hydrogen bomb would be tens[3] of times more powerful and cause similar levels of damage at 2-5 times the distance. [1]




Thermal Radiation

A primary form of energy from a nuclear explosion is thermal radiation.

This radiation is the main cause of skin burns and eye injuries suffered by exposed individuals and causes combustible materials to break into flames.

Therefore it affects humans both directly and indirectly

The first pulse, which lasts about a tenth of a second, consists of radiation in the ultraviolet region. The second pulse which may last for several seconds, carries about 99 percent of the total thermal radiation energy. [1]

The thermal pulse charring the paint.




Initial Radiation

Initial nuclear radiation is defined as the radiation that arrives during the first minute after an explosion, and is mostly gamma radiation and neutron radiation.

The level of initial nuclear radiation decreases rapidly with distance from the fireball to where less than one roentgen may be received five miles from ground zero. In addition, initial radiation lasts only as long as nuclear fission occurs in the fireball. Initial nuclear radiation represents about 3 percent of the total energy in a nuclear explosion.

Though people close to ground zero may receive lethal doses of radiation, they are concurrently being killed by the blast wave and thermal pulse. In typical nuclear weapons, only a relatively small proportion of deaths and injuries result from initial radiation. [1][2]




Residual Radiation

The residual radiation from a nuclear explosion is mostly from the radioactive fallout.

This radiation comes from the weapon debris, fission products, and, in the case of a ground burst, radiated soil.

There are over 300 different fission products that may result from a fission reaction. Many of these are radioactive with widely differing half-lives. Some are very short, while a few are long enough that the materials can be a hazard for months or years. Their principal mode of decay is by the emission of beta particles and gamma radiation. [1]



History of Legal Proliferation Amongst the NWS

“Legal” proliferation has been mainly dependent on the nuclear umbrella of the NWS states and granted access to safe nuclear material under IAEA safe guards. This will persuade other nations not to purse nuclear weapons programs as long as the NWS will protect them and only use the given materials for peaceful means.

The United States destroyed its biological weapons in the early 1970s, and is in the process of destroying its stockpile of chemical weapons.

Early on in the development of its nuclear weapons, the United States relied in part on sharing information with both the United Kingdom and Canada. This was stated in the Québec agreement of 1943. These three states agreed not to share nuclear weapons information with other countries without the consent of the others as an early attempt at nonproliferation. [1][2]

After the Korean War, the Soviet Union transferred nuclear technology and weapons to the People's Republic of China as an adversary of the United States and NATO. According to Ion Mihai Pacepa, "Khrushchev’s nuclear-proliferation process started with Communist China in April 1955, when the new ruler in the Kremlin consented to supply Beijing a sample atomic bomb and to help with its mass production. Subsequently, the Soviet Union built all the essentials of China’s new military nuclear industry.“ [5]

China gives security assurance to non-nuclear-weapon states and undertakes not to use or threaten to use nuclear weapons against non-nuclear-weapon states or nuclear-weapon-free zones at any time or under any circumstances. Chinese public policy has always been one of the "no first use rule" while maintaining a deterrent retaliatory force targeted for counter value targets. [4]

The French military is currently thought to retain a weapons stockpile of around 300 operational nuclear warheads, making it the third-largest in the world. The weapons are part of the national Force de frappe, developed in the late 1950s and 1960s to give France the ability to distance itself from NATO while having a means of nuclear deterrence under sovereign control. [3]

Since the 1958 US-UK Mutual Defence Agreement, the United States and the United Kingdom have cooperated extensively on nuclear security matters. The relationship between the two states has involved the exchange of classified scientific information and nuclear materials such as plutonium. The UK has not run an independent nuclear weapons delivery system development and production program since the cancellation of the Blue Streak missile in the 1960s, instead it has pursued joint development (for its own use) of US delivery systems, designed and manufactured by Lockheed Martin, and fitting them with warheads designed and manufactured by the UK's Atomic Weapons Research Establishment and its successor the Atomic Weapons Establishment. The present system consists of four Vanguard class submarines based at HMNB Clyde, armed with up to 16 Trident missiles, which each carry nuclear warheads in up to eight MIRVs, performing both strategic and sub-strategic deterrence roles. [1] [2]




[4] research/profiles/China/index.html



Regional Treaties

This treaty prohibits the testing, use, production, receipt, storage, installation, and deployment of nuclear weapons.[1]

States parties are forbidden from manufacturing, possessing, testing, and acquiring nuclear weapons.

states parties cannot conduct research on, develop, manufacture, control, stockpile, or posses any nuclear weapons. States parties may only conduct peaceful nuclear related experiments. [1]

This treaty forbids state-parties from manufacturing, processing, developing, and having control of nuclear weapons. It also prohibits the transportation of nuclear weapons through the Economic Exclusion Zones of treaty parties. [1]

This treaty forbids providing provisions towards making a nuclear weapon, storing a nuclear weapon, allowing nuclear testing on its territory, and dumping radioactive waste into the sea. [2]

[1] Retrieved from

[2] Retrieved from


Bilateral Treaties

Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT)

The negotiations known as Strategic Arms Limitation Talks began in November 1969 and ended in January 1972, with agreement on two documents: the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (ABM Treaty) and the Interim Agreement on the Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms. Both were signed on May 26, 1972.

Interim Agreement between the U.S. and U.S.S.R. of five-year duration which froze the number of strategic ballistic missiles at 1972 levels. Construction of additional land-based ICBM silos were prohibited, while SLBM launcher levels can be increased if corresponding reductions are made in older ICBM or SLBM launchers. Modernization of launchers is allowed, however, if kept within specific dimensions.[1]

[1]Retrieved from


Bilateral Treaties

Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty I (STARTI)

Bilateral agreement between the U.S. and U.S.S.R., which cut U.S. long-range nuclear warheads by 15%, Soviet by 25%. Both sides are permitted to continue modernization plans, and the number of nuclear warheads carried on some categories of strategic weapons is projected to actually increase by the late 1990s under the treaty.[1]

[1]Retrieved from


Bilateral Treaties

Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty II (STARTII)

The START II treaty is a bilateral treaty negotiated by the United States and Russia and signed by Presidents Bush and Yeltsin on January 3, 1993. It will reduce the number of strategic delivery vehicles (ballistic missiles and heavy bombers) and the number of warheads deployed on them. Overall strategic forces will be reduced by 5,000 warheads in addition to the 9,000 warheads being reduced under START I.

By December 4, 2001, each Party must have reduced the total number of its deployed strategic warheads so that it does not exceed 4,250.

By December 31, 2002, each Party must have reduced the total number of its deployed strategic warheads so that it does not exceed 3,500.

Russia formally withdrew from the START II nuclear arms treaty with the United States on June 14, 2002, saying that it passed away because of the expiration of the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty.

The U.S. Congress ratified the treaty in 1996 and the Russian parliament followed suit in 2000, but Russian lawmakers linked START II to preservation of the 1972 ABM Treaty. [1]

[1]Retrieved from


Bilateral Treaties

Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty (SORT)

Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty (SORT)

Bilateral agreement between the U.S. and Russia:

The United States and Russia would be limited to 1,700 to 2,200 strategic nuclear warheads apiece.

Limits must be in place by 2012.

Each country can withdraw from the treaty with three months notice by citing "a supreme national interest."

Verification procedures in the 1991 START I treaty, such as onsite inspections, will apply to the new deal, though they will not be spelled out in the treaty. A new U.S.-Russian commission will discuss how to implement the treaty.

The agreement allows either side to decide what to do with the warheads removed from missiles, long-range bombers and submarines. No warheads would have to be destroyed. [1]

[1] Retrieved from



Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty [FMCT]

Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty [FMCT] would strengthen nuclear non-proliferation norms by adding a binding international commitment to existing constraints on nuclear weapons-usable fissile material. The proposed treaty would ban the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices.[1]

The Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT)

is an international treaty that obligates State Parties not to carry out any nuclear weapon test explosion or any other nuclear explosion, to prohibit and prevent nuclear explosions at any place under its jurisdiction or control, and to refrain from causing, encouraging, or participating in the carrying out of any nuclear weapon test explosion or any other nuclear explosion.[2]

[1]Retrieved from

[2] Retrieved from



Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT)

The Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) is a multilateral treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, which entered into force on 5 March 1970. The three pillars of the Treaty are non-proliferation, disarmament and the peaceful use of nuclear technology.[1]

[1]Retrieved from


Purpose of Membership (NPT)

The goal of members of the non proliferation treaty is to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons throughout the world, reduce the current amount and allow fair access to peaceful nuclear technology under international audits and inspections (regulations) of IAEA [1]



Two party Membership (NPT)

There are two types of parties in this treaty:

The NWS (nuclear weapon states)

(NNWS) Nuclear Non weapon states




Requirements for the NPT

Those who wish to join the NPT must join as NNWS.

The must dismantle all and renounce their nuclear weapons program pursing complete nuclear disarmament.

All nuclear activity must be extensively regulated by the IAEA

NWS- They are permitted to keep their nuclear weapons, but must be committed under the treaty to engage in negotiations on nuclear disarmament and on ending the nuclear arms race.

NPT - forbids the NWS to help in anyway NNWS in acquiring or manufacturing nuclear weapons. [1]



Why Join (NPT)

In exchange for a state’s commitment to global nuclear disarmament they are given the right to access nuclear materials and technology for peaceful uses of nuclear energy that are within the safe guards of International Atomic Energy association. [1]



Membership Growth

The growth in the treaty's membership toward universality has been steady. Beginning with 43 original parties in 1970, membership increased to 96 in 1975, 132 in 1985, and 178 in 1995. By July 1998, 187 parties had joined the NPT. And by 2002 on November 4 Cuba signed, thereby becoming the 188th party to the NPT. More countries have ratified the NPT than any other arms control or disarmament agreement in history. [1]



Non- Joined

As of April 2004, only three states have not signed the treaty: India, Israel, and Pakistan. [1] [2]

North Korea announced its withdrawal from the NPT on January 10, 2003, and its withdrawal came into effect on April 10, 2003. They did not place all there nuclear material under IAEA safeguards. [1][2]




Who Wants Nuclear Weapons?

Courtesy of Elizabeth Jimenez



  • Has not publicly stated that it has nuclear weapons
  • Its regarded as a de facto nuclear-weapon state

Motivations: (defense)

  • They feel the need for a highly advanced military, a nuclear-weapons program, & offensive – defensive missiles due to the threat from its Arab & Persian neighbors
  • The nuclear program is the most advanced in the middle east that began in the late 1950’s
  • The missile program began in the 1960’s with the help from the French[1]

Image :



  • Its nuclear storage is estimated to be between 20 – 100 Nagasaki-sized bombs

Chain Reactions:

- They formally stated to not be the first to introduce nuclear weapons into the middle east

Non-Proliferation Initiatives:

  • Signed the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT)
  • Although Non-party to the Nuclear Proliferation Treaty (NPT)[1]


  • Had once violated the NPT by secretly pursuing nuclear-weapons program
  • International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) believe Iraq might have been able to build their 1st atomic weapons

Motivations: (continue)

  • Although their weapons program was destroyed, it is believed that they have not abandoned their quest for nuclear weapons
  • Its estimated they could rebuild their its program and manufacture a device in 5-7 years, if UN is removed[1]


  • Iraq’s WMD were never discovered but there has been reports about missing nuclear equipment and materials
  • There has been reported missing materials since 2003

Non-Proliferation Initiatives:

- They are members of the NPT, however they don’t follow it.[1]




  • A threshold nation
  • Has also violated the NPT due to pursuing nuclear-weapons program
  • China and Russia has been it main supplier of nuclear technology


- Although its not clear how close Iran is to developing a nuclear device, but its estimated to be between a few years to a decade[1]



Chain Reactions:

- As Iran’s nuclear capabilities grew, the EU-3 (France, Great Britain, Germany) sought to negotiate nuclear –research activities

Non-Proliferation Initiatives:

  • They are members to the NPT but they constantly violate their agreement in accordance to Article 2[1]


  • In 2005 they publicly announced to manufacture nuclear weapons
  • Also made declarations of withdrawing from the NPT in 2003
  • In mid-2002 U.S. intelligence discovered that North Korea had been receiving materials from Pakistan for a highly enriched uranium-production facility.


- It is assumed that North Korea has made enough plutonium for one to two nuclear weapons.[1]


Non-Proliferation Initiatives:

  • Signed the NPT in 1985 but once announced to withdraw from it
  • Signed a "Statement of Principles“ in 2005 in which they agreed to abandon all nuclear programs and return to the NPT and IAEA safeguards[1]


  • Considered a nation of concern
  • In 2003 they publicly confirmed to disclose and dismantle WMD programs


  • In 2003 IAEA inspectors went to verify the elimination of nuclear-weapon-related activities in Libya
  • Inspectors found imported equipment and technology in several secret facilities in and around Tripoli[1]

Non-Proliferation Initiatives:

  • They pledged to adhere to the NPT, which they ratified in 1975
  • They also signed the Additional Protocol in 2004
  • Signed the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) in 2004[1]

Why do they want them?

  • No one country has a monopoly over nuclear weapons, however it is in the best of interest of NWS to help reduce the proliferation to NNWS. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, countries have chosen to pursue nuclear weapons to protect themselves against other hostile nations; which include those with nuclear weapons and those who are being suspected of developing them. Being in possession of nuclear weapons w serves as a form of intimidation to other nations to keep them from invading or attacking, in other words it proves security. When a state acquires nuclear weapons, the cost of invading that state increases because it is more difficult and expensive for the one who invades to gain a military edge. [1]



Those who had them

  • -These countries willingly gave up there nuclear weapons programs and considerations.
  • Argentina
  • South Korea
  • Australia
  • Spain
  • Brazil
  • Switzerland
  • Canada
  • Taiwan
  • Romania
  • Yugoslavia
  • Egypt
  • Norway
  • Sweden
  • Italy
  • West Germany
  • Japan

-South Africa is the only known country to willingly dismantle and give up their nuclear weapons arsenal. [1]

- These four inherited nuclear weapons after the collapse of the soviet union but were forced to give the weapons up by the UN

  • Ukraine
  • Belarus
  • Kazakhstan
  • Libya [1]




A.Q Khan

Abdul Qadeer Khan is a pakistinian scientist and metallurgical engineer. He is regarded as the “father "of Pakistan nuclear program and many other countries programs as well. He is 73 years old and he is pakistinian.

His role in illegal proliferation to Pakistan, Iraq, Iran, North Korea, Libya Saudi Arabia and more.

Carnegie Endowment . (2005). AQ khan nuclear chronology. Khan builds his base in Pakistan, VIII.



Timeline of His Actions

1972:Khan receives PhD in metallurgical engineering from

Catholic university of leaven in Belgium. Metallurgical engineering is the science that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements (for example uranium), when they are mixed and formed into compounds or alloys.

1974: Khan writes to prime minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto

to offer his expertise and services to Pakistan.

1975:Khan leaves Dutch for Pakistan with copied blue prints for centrifuges other components and contact information for nearly 100 companies that supply centrifuge components and materials. (bad)

1976: Khan founds the Engineering research laboratory the “ERL”

1978: The ERL develops P-1 centrifuges. Pakistan enriches uranium for the first time on April 4th(BAD)

1985-1995: Khan has major success and even develops more advanced centrifuges, he ends up with an excess and begins to sell to Iran and offers technologies to Iraq and possibly others.

1985: Pakistan has enough enriched uranium to create nuclear weapons, and is now researching for the development of missile delivery systems. ( missile deliverance bad )

Carnegie Endowment . (2005). AQ khan nuclear chronology. Khan builds his base in Pakistan, VIII.


Timeline of his actions cont.

1985:Khan reportedly begins to develop his export network and orders twice the number of components necessary for the Pakistani program. ( suspicious )

1986-1987: Pakistan and Iran are suspected of signing a secret agreement on “peaceful” nuclear cooperation ( middle east league of evil ). Allegedly the deal includes a provision for at least six Iranians to be trained in Pakistan. They might receive centrifuge training also.

1987:Khan is suspected of having made an offer to Iran to provide a package of nuclear technologies, including assistance for the difficult process of casting uranium metal. The price ranges from 10 to 100’s of millions dollars. ( bill gates or uranium )

1992: Pakistan begins missile cooperation with North Korea.

( missile cooperation bad )

1995- Present: After Khan’s initial nuclear transfers to Iran, he began to expand his network of customers to include Libya and North Korea. Libya then began to participate in proliferation by selling to Malaysia, Singapore, Turkey, South Africa, Switzerland, South Korea, Dubai and possibly others.[1]

[1] Carnegie Endowment . (2005). AQ khan nuclear chronology. Khan builds his base in Pakistan, VIII.

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