Achievement goals as predictors of expectancy value motivation effort and intention
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Achievement Goals as Predictors of Expectancy-Value Motivation, Effort, and Intention. Xiaoxia Su 1 , Ron E. McBride 1 , Ping Xiang 1 , Jaeyoung Yang 1 , Fatma Sacli 2 , Robert Speer 1 Glenn Schroeder 1. Texas A&M University Hacettepe University. Introduction.

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Achievement goals as predictors of expectancy value motivation effort and intention

Achievement Goals as Predictors of Expectancy-Value Motivation, Effort, and Intention

Xiaoxia Su1, Ron E. McBride1, Ping Xiang1,

Jaeyoung Yang1, Fatma Sacli2, Robert Speer1

Glenn Schroeder1

  • Texas A&M University

  • Hacettepe University


Introduction
Introduction

  • The prevalence of childhood obesity in U.S.

  • The discrepancy on obesity rate among at-risk children (Caucasian, 14.0%; African-American, 24.3%; Hispanic-American, 21.2%; Ogden, Carroll, Kit, & Flegal, 2012 ).

  • Summer sports camp can provide valuable opportunities for children to be physically active during the summer months (Jago & Baranowski, 2004).


Introduction1
Introduction

  • Motivation is the driving force of physical activity participation (Pintrich & Schunk, 1996)

  • Achievement goal theory (Nicholls, 1989) and expectancy-value theory(Eccles et al., 1983; Wigfield & Eccles, 2000) are two well-established theories that explain students’ motivation.


The 2 2 achievement goals
The 2×2 Achievement Goals

  • Mastery-approach goal (MAp)

    • Aims to learn or improve one’s skill

  • Mastery-avoidance goal (MAv)

    • Striving to avoid learning failures or skill decline

  • Performance-approach goal (PAp)

    • Aims to outperform others

  • Performance-avoidance goal (PAv)

    • Striving to avoid doing worse than others

(Elliot & McGregor, 2001)


Expectancy value motivation
Expectancy-Value Motivation

  • Expectancy beliefs: children’s perceptions about how well they will perform the activity

  • Task values: perceptions about the value of the activity

    • Usefulness

    • Importance

    • Interest


The purpose of study
The Purpose of Study

To examine how 2×2 achievement goals predict expectancy-value motivation, effort, and intention for future leisure-time physical activity.


Methods
Methods

Setting

  • A summer sports camp in the southern U.S.

  • Two 3-week sessions

    Participants

  • 97 boys attending this summer camp

  • Ages:10- 13 (M=11.56, SD=1.95)

  • Ethnicity: Hispanic (48.5%), Caucasian American (27.8%), African American (18.6%), Asian American (1.0%), and other (4.1%).

    Prior to the study, permission was obtained from the university institutional review board (IRB) and all participants.


Methods1
Methods

Instrumentation

2× 2 achievement goals: a 12-item scale adapted from the Achievement Goal Questionnaire–Physical Education (Guan, McBride, & Xiang, 2007)

Expectancy-value motivation: a 11-item scale adapted from Xiang, McBride, and Bruene (2006)

Effort – a 4-item scale adapted from Guan, Xiang, and McBride(2006)

Intention - a 3-item scale adapted from Shen, McCaughtry, and Martin (2007)


Methods2
Methods

Procedure

Participants completed questionnaires on the third day of camp.

Data Analysis

  • Cronbach’s coefficient alphas

  • Descriptive statistics

  • Pearson product-moment correlations

  • Multiple regressions



Results1
Results

Table 2.Inter-correlations among Study Variables

**p<.01, *p<.05


Results2
Results

Multiple Regressions

Expectancy beliefs, F (4,83) = 10.68, p < .001, R2 = .34

Interest, F (4,83) = 8.14, p < .001, R2 = .28

Importance, F (4,83) = 6.334, p < .001, R2 = .23

Effort, F (4,84) = 5.86, p < .001, R2 = .22

Intention, F (4,84) = 9.31, p < .001, R2 = .31


Results3
Results

  • MAp positively predicted boys' expectancy beliefs (β = .423, t = 4.58, p < .001),interest(β = .389, t = 4.04, p < .001), importance(β = .442, t = 4.25, p < .001),effort(β = .404, t = 4.04, p < .001), and intention(β = .332, t = 3.53, p < .001).

  • MAv negatively predicted expectancy beliefs (β = -.208, t = -2.17, p < .05),interest(β = -.323, t = -3.22, p < .01), and intention (β = -.221, t = -2.27, p < .05).


Results4
Results

  • PAp positively predicted expectancy beliefs (β = .326, t = 3.39, p < .01), and intention (β = .330, t = 3.35, p < .001).

  • PAv was not a predictor of any of the dependent variables.


Discussion conclusion
Discussion/Conclusion

  • Supported the view that MAp goals are positively associated with expectancy-value motivation, effort, and intention(Agbuga, Xiang, & McBride, 2010; Shen, Chen, & Guan, 2007; Gao et al., 2012)

  • Extended the view that MAp goal is motivationally adaptive to a summer sports camp setting.


Discussion conclusion1
Discussion/Conclusion

  • Supported previous studies that PApwas associated with positive student learning outcomes (Gao et al., 2012; Chen et al., 2009) .

  • Based on the study results, we suggest that camp designers promote MAp and PAp to optimize student engagement and learning in summer sports camps.


Directions for future research
Directions for Future Research

  • Include female participants and examine gender differences

  • Use longitudinal study to examine the changes on the predictive utility of the 2×2 achievement goals in expectancy-value motivation, effort, and intention

  • Include qualitative data (e.g., interviews, journals, observations)

  • Replicate this study in other settings such as physical education classes.


References selected
References (Selected)

Jago, R., & Baranowski, T. (2004). Non‐curricular approaches for increasing physical activity in youth: A review. Preventive Medicine, 39(1), 157‐163.

Ogden, C. L., Carroll, M., Kit, B. K., & Flegal, K. M. (2012). Prevalence of obesity and trends in body mass index among US children and Adolescents, 1999-2010. Journal of American Medical Association, 307, 483-491.

Wigfield, A., & Eccles, J. S. (2000). Expectancy–value theory of achievement motivation. Contemporary educational psychology, 25(1), 68-81.

Xiang, P., McBride, R. E., & Bruene, A. (2006). Fourth-grade students’ motivational changes in an elementary physical education running program. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 77, 195-207.



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