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Welcome to USC CSCI597!. This course provides a series of expository lectures to introduce Ph.D. students to the breadth of research topics in CS (and, to some extent, beyond). The idea is to cycle through the subareas of USC research in CS each semester.

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welcome to usc csci597
Welcome to USC CSCI597!
  • This course provides a series of expository lectures to introduce Ph.D. students to the breadth of research topics in CS (and, to some extent, beyond). The idea is to cycle through the subareas of USC research in CS each semester.
  • First-year Ph.D. Students are required to enroll for 1 unit of CSCI 597 for the first 2 semesters of the Ph.D. Program. (Applicable only to students enrolling in Summer of 2000 or later.)

CS 597

welcome to usc csci5971
Welcome to USC CSCI597!
  • Lectures: M 12:00-12:50pm, OHE-122
  • Office Hours: M 2-4, HNB-30A
  • Grading: Must attend all lectures and complete all assignments with satisfactory results.
  • Enrollment: First-year Ph.D. Students are required to enroll for 1 unit of CSCI 597 for the first 2 semesters of the Ph.D. Program.
  • Web site:http://iLab.usc.edu/classes/2007cs597f/

CS 597

slide3
More on grading / assignments
  • In the first or last 5 minutes of each lecture: short 5-minute quiz about the contents of the previous lecture.
  • Paper will be provided, but bring a pen or pencil.
    • Questions will be easy, but…
    • You must be present, and
    • On time!
  • Quizzes will be collected immediately at the end of the 5-minute period.
  • There will be no opportunity for submitting late quizzes.

CS 597

more on grading assignments
More on grading / assignments
  • Each quiz graded on a scale
    • From 0 (not turned in, no answer, all wrong answers, …)
    • To 5 (all correct answers)
  • To pass you will need to get a cumulative grade of 3n or more, where n is the number of assignments handed out during the semester.

CS 597

our focus in this class
Our focus in this class
  • We focus on USC-CS research
  • Speakers will be from the department, including ISI and ICT
  • This class complements but does not replace normal seminars

CS 597

ph d research
Ph.D. Research
  • How to read papers?
  • How to keep up-to-date with research?
  • How to determine novelty of an idea?
  • How to write papers?

CS 597

how to read papers
How to read papers
  • Be focused
  • Use google and books extensively
  • Start with reviews and book chapters, then go on with topical research as you are already more familiar with the field
  • Be critical – learn to identify weak papers

Read as much as you can. You want to become the world expert in your research domain.

CS 597

how to keep up to date with research
How to keep up-to-date with research
  • Check online journals regularly
  • Check online search engines regularly
  • Go to conferences
  • Go to USC/UCLA/Caltech/other research seminars
  • Talk with people – identify key researchers in your topic, then meet with them when they come over to USC for a talk
  • Check conference web sites
  • Check lab web sites

CS 597

medline pubmed
Medline / PubMed
  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/
  • Created by NIH
  • Moderated (selected journals, some degree of human checking)
  • Mostly for the biological sciences
  • Increasingly, provides links to PDF versions of papers in a growing subset of the journals covered

CS 597

getting the bibliography record
Getting the bibliography record
  • Try the tools we have developed at

http://iLab.usc.edu/bibTOhtml/

  • Example:

medkey visual attention

lists papers matching the keywords

medref visual attention >> mybib.bib

grabs the medline records, convert to bibtex,

add to end of local bibliography file

CS 597

isi web of knowledge
ISI Web of Knowledge
  • http://isiknowledge.com
  • Wide array of journals and conference proceedings, broad science and engineering coverage
  • Moderated (selected publications, some human intervention)
  • Commercial product, USC has a campuswide subscription (based on matching IP address to the 128.125.x.x)
  • Search not only for papers by keywords, authors, etc. but also for papers that cite a given paper, or for papers that cite the work of a given author.

CS 597

researchindex
ResearchIndex
  • http://researchindex.org
  • Created by NEC research
  • Autonomous, unmoderated, web crawler looking for PDFs
  • Mostly about computer science and related (e.g., robotics, etc.)
  • Wide coverage, but only of those papers that are online somewhere
  • Will return a variety of documents published in a variety of places or not published at all – always double-check that the document you are interested in has some backing (e.g., is a preprint version of a paper published in a well-known journal)

CS 597

usc library online resources
USC Library online resources
  • http://www.usc.edu/libraries/eresources/
  • Listing and links to all journals for which USC has an online subscription (click on: eJournals)

CS 597

google scholar
Google scholar
  • New kid on the block
  • Returns papers and links to other papers that cite them
  • Links to other databases
  • Links to the USC library system

CS 597

how to determine the novelty of an idea
How to determine the novelty of an idea
  • Be an expert in the field
  • Check with your advisor and other researchers
  • Check at conferences
  • Send it to a conference and gather reviews & reactions

CS 597

your ph d at usc
Your Ph.D. at USC
  • The goal of a Ph.D.
  • What it takes to achieve a great Ph.D.
  • Courses
  • Advisor

CS 597

the goal of a ph d
The goal of a Ph.D.

Make a significant impact onto a specific research issue, such that

nobody working on this issue can afford to ignore your work.

  • Several components:
    • Need to become an expert in the field
    • Develop novel ideas
    • Implement them
    • Thoroughly test and validate them
    • Make your results known through conferences, informal meetings, and journal publications

CS 597

the questions posed to you
The Questions Posed to You
  • What do you want to get out of the PhD?
    • a meal-ticket
    • stepping-stone to industry
    • a milestone in an intellectual quest
    • something else?
  • To what extent do you expect your thesis topic to result
    • from your motivation or
    • your supervisor's direction?
  • How do you get information to inform yourself
    • in your research area
    • in computer science generally
    • in broader intellectual topics
    • in the arts and current events?
  • What are you doing to educate yourself as as a citizen of the world, not just as a computer scientist?

CS 597

how to achieve this
How to achieve this
  • Your Ph.D. is a race – get started as soon as possible!

CS 597

how to achieve this1
How to achieve this
  • Your Ph.D. is a race – get started as soon as possible!
  • Your Ph.D. will require work of an intensity that you have never before encountered – need to be strong, dedicated and focused

CS 597

how to achieve this2
How to achieve this
  • Your Ph.D. is a race – get started as soon as possible!
  • Your Ph.D. will require work of an intensity that you have never before encountered – need to be strong, dedicated and focused
  • Your Ph.D. will be full of ambushes, deceptions and problems – learn to deal with them efficiently

CS 597

how to achieve this3
How to achieve this
  • Your Ph.D. is a race – get started as soon as possible!
  • Your Ph.D. will require work of an intensity that you have never before encountered – need to be strong, dedicated and focused
  • Your Ph.D. will be full of ambushes, deceptions and problems – learn to deal with them efficiently
  • Your Ph.D. will not necessarily succeed – be very careful to keep it under control

CS 597

how to achieve this4
How to achieve this
  • Your Ph.D. is a race – get started as soon as possible!
  • Your Ph.D. will require work of an intensity that you have never before encountered – need to be strong, dedicated and focused
  • Your Ph.D. will be full of ambushes, deceptions and problems – learn to deal with them efficiently
  • Your Ph.D. will not necessarily succeed – be very careful to keep it under control
  • Your Ph.D. is your most important, largest-scale achievement – not anybody else’s. Hence, you must take control and be in charge!

CS 597

courses
Courses
  • It is important to study hard and do very well on courses

CS 597

courses1
Courses
  • It is important to study hard and do very well on courses
  • But don’t overdo it! Your Ph.D. is not about taking courses.

CS 597

courses2
Courses
  • It is important to study hard and do very well on courses
  • But don’t overdo it! Your Ph.D. is not about taking courses.
  • During my Ph.D. I adopted the “fire-and-forget” strategy:
    • Learn as much as possible
    • Exploit the university and its resources to the maximum
    • Spend a minimum amount of time on the homeworks – be focused, efficient, do not drag it along forever, do not polish it

CS 597

screening
Screening
  • 1. Course work
      • Core courses
      • Research courses
      • Intellectual development
        • Find the balance as you hit that 3.5 GPA
        • Study what you need for your Ph.D.
  • 2. Find a potential advisor and convince him/her that you canmake real progress in their research area.

NOTE: Several of the following slides contributed by Prof Michael Arbib.

CS 597

breadth and depth
Breadth and Depth

At the time of screening, you may only know your general research area: e.g., “networking” or “intelligent agents”.

You must “chart the territory” for a definite subarea

-- what are the key issues, the best books, journals and conferences, who are the top researchers?

then you must define your own more focused subarea in which you will be the world’s leading expert.

Choosing a sufficiently focused area and defining a 3-year (more or less) research project can be time consuming and frustrating!

The right advisor should know more about the overall territory than you do so that s/he can be your guide.

But to be a successful student, you should eventually know morethan your adviser about your narrow subarea!!

CS 597

quals
Quals
  • 1. Form a 5-person Quals committee: Usually 4 from the department and one Outside Member who represents the Graduate School.
  • 2. Write a Quals Document
    • Review the relevant literature
    • Define the open problems you will work on
    • Report on a completed piece of the research (similar to a conference paper or half a chapter).
    • Present a preliminary outline for your Ph.D. thesis with a tentative timeline
  • 3. Defend your Proposal orally in front of the committee
    • The aim is not to convince the committee you should pass but to maximize their feedback to focus and refine your work on your dissertation.
  • 4. Form a Ph.D. committee: Usually 3 to 5 members of your Quals committee -- but you must include the Outside Member.

CS 597

between quals and thesis completion
Between Quals and Thesis Completion
  • The thesis might take as little as one year or as many as four -- when doing original research you cannot predict what will happen:
    • Your “predictions” in the quals timeline may be just right, but
    • Some problems may turn out to be much harder than predicted, while
    • Others may get solved by someone else while you are still working on them.
  • Thus the Quals Document is a general guideline, but may undergo constant reshaping in response both to your own discoveries and developments in the literature.
  • As your work progresses see your advisor frequently and other committee members more or less occasionally to report your progress and get helpful feedback.

CS 597

skills you may acquire along the way
Skills You May Acquire Along the Way
  • Presenting papers at conferences
  • Preparing articles for journal publication
  • Writing a patent
  • Helping your advisor prepare a research proposal

CS 597

thesis
Thesis
  • The thesis is a sandwich:
  • Introduction and Literature Review
  • 2 to 4 Research Chapters each similar in Scope to a Publication
  • Prospects for Future Research
  • Key advice:
    • Scope out the hot places to publish in your subarea.
    • Then maintain 2 versions of the “meat” chapters as you write them: one for the thesis and one for publication.
  • In general your advisor will let you proceed to the Defense only when s/he feels that you have a critical mass of original research

CS 597

defense
Defense

1. Two weeks before the defense, submit a complete draft of the thesis to your committee

2. The defense will usually have 2 parts:

  • A 1-hour public lecture on the main points of your thesis
  • followed by a closed door session in which you will be closely questioned by the committee about any and all aspects of the thesis.

3. In general, you will require a few weeks work to polish the thesis in a way that addresses the questions raised by your defense.

4. Both in preparing for the exam and in submitting the thesis, you will be responsible to complete all Grad School paperwork and follow all the guidelines.

5. Get a robe and mortar board and go to Commencement for proud photographs with your family, Dr. X!!

CS 597

finding an advisor
Finding an Advisor
  • Two different strategies:

- Go where you can learn the most about what interests you most

- Go where the money is

CS 597

your advisor
Your advisor
  • Can help you with any issue – don’t be shy to ask!
  • Generally speaking, is understanding – don’t hesitate to criticize or complain (nicely)
  • Is knowledgeable – please do listen and implement his/her advice
  • Is interested only in motivated, hard-working students – unless you are one of these, you will not get much attention from her/him

CS 597

your advisor1
Your advisor

… is extra-busy!

- many deadlines every day

- many ongoing projects

- teaching takes a lot of time

- need to write proposals, papers, reports, organize committees, organize conferences, organize the lab, attend P.I. meetings, manage the lab, render various services to the university, do research, disseminate research via papers and many talks, help students write papers, help other students (not only from their own lab), lobby government agencies, babysit high- profile visitors, talk to the press, review papers, review proposals, review conference abstracts, etc…

CS 597

what advisors want
What Advisors Want
  • All advisors want to advance their careers, and thus hope that your thesis will yield conference papers and journal publications that will help their reputation and help them get their grants renewed.
  • Three styles:
  • “Directed”: The advisor has already specified step-by-step what an RA has to do on one of their grants and if you followthese steps you will get a Ph.D.
  • “Laissez-faire”: “Come and see me at quals and defense time.”
  • “Negotiator”: Convince the advisor that you have your own goals but then negotiate a thesis topic that advances your goals but also allows you to learn from what the advisor and his/her group are doing and contribute to the group’s progress.

CS 597

interacting with your advisor
Interacting with your advisor
  • Cut on non-work-related stuff
  • When meeting, be sure to provide short reminder of context – your have one Ph.D. project but your advisor is working on 10+ just like yours in parallel
  • When meeting, be prepared – your advisor has no time to waste
  • If your advisor seems too busy – that’s probably because your progress has not generated enough excitement yet. Work harder, implement what s/he suggested, go beyond that, show lots of results, … demonstrate that you are dedicating your life to your project.

CS 597

interacting with your advisor1
Interacting with your advisor
  • If possible, setup a weekly one-on-one meeting time.
    • Take notes during the meeting
    • At the end, summarize the key things you will do before the next meeting
  • For this to work, before each meeting make sure that
    • You have addressed the questions and pending issues raised during the previous meeting.
    • If you believe that a raised question actually was not worth addressing, then be sure to explain why.
  • This is very important because: your advisor may envision a given step to be necessary for your research to go forward (e.g., run a control experiment, perform a given analysis, replot the data in a given way); as long as you don’t take that step, your advisor will be stuck in his/her thinking because his/her beliefs have not changed.

CS 597

beyond your advisor
Beyond your advisor
  • A secondary goal throughout my studies was to maximally benefit from the incredible resources provided by the university.
  • Identify key people and meet with them (you need to be prepared and have things to show them)
  • Identify key labs and hang around them
  • Identify key facilities and exploit them

CS 597

beyond your advisor1
Beyond your advisor
  • Show your work to other professors and students – get feedback!
  • In difficult situations, most professors will open their door to you – but you need to do the first step.

CS 597

ethical issues
Ethical Issues
  • What is plagiarism?

Using others’ work and misrepresenting it as being your own.

This includes:

    • Cut & paste from the reading assigmnent
    • Cut & paste from the web
    • Cut & paste from books, other papers, etc.
    • Cut & paste from ANYTHING that is not your own!
    • Changing wording of a sentence but keeping the ideas
    • Summary which does not include proper references
    • Etc.

CS 597

ethical issues1
Ethical issues

This and the following slides are from:

http://www.usc.edu/student-affairs/student-conduct/ug_plag.htm

“Plagiarism is the unacknowledged and inappropriate use of the ideas or wording of another writer.”

As defined in the University Student Conduct Code (published in the current SCampus), plagiarism includes:

"The submission of material authored by another person but represented as the student's own work, whether that material is paraphrased or copied in verbatim or near verbatim form;"

"The submission of material subjected to editorial revision by another person that results in substantive changes in content or major alteration of writing style;" and

"Improper acknowledgment of sources in essays or papers." (§11.11)

CS 597

example 1 repeating another s words without acknowledgment
Example 1: Repeating Another's Words Without Acknowledgment

Original Source (From Neil Postman. Amusing Ourselves to Death. New York: Penguin, 1985. 127-128.)

“The television commercial is the most peculiar and pervasive form of communication to issue forth from the electric plug....The move away from the use of propositions in commercial advertising began at the end of the nineteenth century. But it was not until the 1950's that the television commercial made linguistic discourse obsolete as the basis for product decisions. By substituting images for claims, the pictorial commercial made emotional appeal, not tests of truth, the basis of consumer decisions.”

CS 597

example 1 repeating another s words without acknowledgment1
Example 1: Repeating Another's Words Without Acknowledgment

Plagiarized Version (essentially verbatim):

“Television commercials have made language obsolete as a basis for making decisions about products. The pictorial commercial has substituted images for claims and thereby made emotional appeal, rather than tests of truth, the basis of consumer decisions.”

CS 597

example 1 repeating another s words without acknowledgment2
Example 1: Repeating Another's Words Without Acknowledgment

Plagiarized Version (essentially verbatim):

“Television commercials have made language obsolete as a basis for making decisions about products. The pictorial commercial has substituted images for claims and thereby made emotional appeal, rather than tests of truth, the basis of consumer decisions.”

Although the writer has changed, rearranged, and deleted words in the version above, the text is essentially the same as the original source. In paraphrasing, you take the writer's ideas and put them in your own words. It is not a process of substituting synonyms or rearranging the order of words. Even if the version above gave credit to Postman for his ideas, the passage would be considered plagiarized.

CS 597

example 1 repeating another s words without acknowledgment3
Example 1: Repeating Another's Words Without Acknowledgment

Correctly Paraphrased and Documented Version:

“Postman argues that television commercials do not use language or "test of truth" to help viewers decide whether to buy a product. Instead, they rely on images to create an emotional appeal that influences consumers' decisions (127-128).”

CS 597

example 1 repeating another s words without acknowledgment4
Example 1: Repeating Another's Words Without Acknowledgment

Correctly Paraphrased and Documented Version:

“Postman argues that television commercials do not use language or "test of truth" to help viewers decide whether to buy a product. Instead, they rely on images to create an emotional appeal that influences consumers' decisions (127-128).”

In the correctly paraphrased and documented version above, most of the ideas have been paraphrased or restated in the writer's own words. Quotation marks have been placed around a key phrase that is taken directly from the original source. In addition, the name of the author refers readers to a corresponding entry in the Works Cited page, and the page number indicates the location of the information in the source cited.

CS 597

example 2 presenting another writer s argument or point of view without acknowledgment
Example 2: Presenting Another Writer's Argument or Point of View Without Acknowledgment

Original Source (From Arlene Skolnick. Embattled Paradise. New York: Basic Books, 1991. 11.):

“The changes in larger society, as well as their reverberations in the family, call into question basic assumptions about the nature of American society, it family arrangements, and Americans themselves. A "Cultural struggle" ensues as people debate the meaning of change. One of these periods of cultural upheaval occurred in the early decades of the nineteenth century; a second occurred in the decades just before and after the turn of the twentieth century. For the last thirty years, we have been living through another such wave of social change.

Three related structural changes seem to have set the current cycle of family change in motion: first, the shift into a "postindustrial" information and service economy; second, a demographic revolution that not only created mass longevity but reshaped the individual and family life course, creating life stages and circumstances unknown to earlier generations; third, a process I call "psychological gentrification," which involves an introspective approach to experience, a greater sense of one's own individuality and subjectivity, a concern with self-fulfillment and self-development. This is the change misdiagnosed as narcissism.”

CS 597

example 2 presenting another writer s argument or point of view without acknowledgment1
Example 2: Presenting Another Writer's Argument or Point of View Without Acknowledgment

Plagiarized Version:

“Three periods of cultural upheaval in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries have caused major changes in American society. The first occurred during the beginning of the nineteenth century, the second during the decades before and after 1900, and the third has been underway for the last thirty years. Three structural changes occurring during the current upheaval are primarily responsible for changes in American families. These include the development of a postindustrial information and service economy , demographics changes (including longer life spans that have created new and different life stages), and an increased sense of individuality including a desire for self-fulfillment and self development.”

CS 597

example 2 presenting another writer s argument or point of view without acknowledgment2
Example 2: Presenting Another Writer's Argument or Point of View Without Acknowledgment

Plagiarized Version:

“Three periods of cultural upheaval in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries have caused major changes in American society. The first occurred during the beginning of the nineteenth century, the second during the decades before and after 1900, and the third has been underway for the last thirty years. Three structural changes occurring during the current upheaval are primarily responsible for changes in American families. These include the development of a postindustrial information and service economy , demographics changes (including longer life spans that have created new and different life stages), and an increased sense of individuality including a desire for self-fulfillment and self development.”

The writer of the passage above correctly paraphrases Skolnick's ideas but does not give her credit for her ideas or line of argument. The version on the next slide eliminates the plagiarism by attributing the ideas to Skolnick.

CS 597

example 2 presenting another writer s argument or point of view without acknowledgment3
Example 2: Presenting Another Writer's Argument or Point of View Without Acknowledgment

Correctly Documented Version

“According to Skolnick, three periods of cultural upheaval in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries have caused major changes in American society. The first occurred during the beginning of the nineteenth century, the second during the decades before and after 1900, and the third has been underway for the last thirty years. Three structural changes occurring during the current upheaval are primarily responsible for changes in American families. These include the development of a postindustrial informat ion and service economy, demographics changes (including longer life spans that have created new and different life stages), and an increased sense of individuality including a desire for self-fulfillment and self development (11).”

CS 597

example 2 presenting another writer s argument or point of view without acknowledgment4
Example 2: Presenting Another Writer's Argument or Point of View Without Acknowledgment

Correctly Documented Version

“According to Skolnick, three periods of cultural upheaval in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries have caused major changes in American society. The first occurred during the beginning of the nineteenth century, the second during the decades before and after 1900, and the third has been underway for the last thirty years. Three structural changes occurring during the current upheaval are primarily responsible for changes in American families. These include the development of a postindustrial information and service economy, demographics changes (including longer life spans that have created new and different life stages), and an increased sense of individuality including a desire for self-fulfillment and self development (11).”

In the version above, a reader would be able to locate the source by finding the title of Skolnick's book in the Works Cited page and looking on page 11, the number indicated at the end of the paragraph.

CS 597

example 3 repeating another writer s particularly apt phrase or term without acknowledgment
Example 3: Repeating Another Writer's Particularly Apt Phrase or Term Without Acknowledgment

Original Source (From Arlene Skolnick. Embattled Paradise. New York: Basic Books, 1991. 11.)

“Three related structural changes seem to have set the current cycle of family change in motion: first, the shift into a "postindustrial" information and service economy; second, a demographic revolution that not only created mass longevity but reshaped the individual and family life course, creating life stages and circumstances unknown to early generations; third, a process I call "psychological gentrification," which involves an introspective approach to experience, a greater sense of one's own individuality and subjectivity, a concern with self-fulfillment and self-development. This is the change misdiagnosed as narcissism.”

CS 597

example 3 repeating another writer s particularly apt phrase or term without acknowledgment1
Example 3: Repeating Another Writer's Particularly Apt Phrase or Term Without Acknowledgment

Plagiarized Version

The large number of "self-help" books published each year attest to Americans' concern with self-improvement and achieving more fulfilling lives. This process might be described as "psychological gentrification."

Correctly Documented Version

The large number of self-help books published each year attest to Americans' concern with self-improvement and their desire to have a more fulfilling life. Skolnick labels this process as "psychological gentrification" (11).

CS 597

example 3 repeating another writer s particularly apt phrase or term without acknowledgment2
Example 3: Repeating Another Writer's Particularly Apt Phrase or Term Without Acknowledgment

Plagiarized Version

The large number of "self-help" books published each year attest to Americans' concern with self-improvement and achieving more fulfilling lives. This process might be described as "psychological gentrification."

Correctly Documented Version

The large number of self-help books published each year attest to Americans' concern with self-improvement and their desire to have a more fulfilling life. Skolnick labels this process as "psychological gentrification" (11).

As the example above illustrates, putting quotation marks around a borrowed word or phrase is not sufficient documentation. You must also acknowledge the author and give the page numbers so a reader would be able to consult the original source and loc ate the word or phrase. In the original source, Skolnick takes credit ("a process I call") for coining the term "psychological gentrification." Quotation marks in the original appear to be used for emphasis. Phrases in quotations should be cited unless they have become common usage (e.g., "postindustrial" in the original source above).

CS 597

remember
Remember…
  • When you write a paper, you’ll remember all nice phrases you come up with. This applies to others too!
  • Professors can “feel” plagiarism very easily
  • Professors often conduct extensive searches to check for plagiarism
  • Professors are likely to know or have seen the material you come across when writing a class paper

So… yes, do research and find material that can help you writing your essay. But do not plagiarize that material!

CS 597

regarding scientific papers
Regarding scientific papers…
  • Readers and reviewers need to know that you are honest and that you have a good command of the literature
  • So… plagiarism just does not make sense!
  • Indeed, if you write:

“Neurons in the early visual system respond to contrast between two regions in the visual field rather than to the absolute amount of light stimulation in a single region.”

  • You will make a weaker point than

“The pioneering work of Kuffler (1953) and Hubel & Wiesel (1962) has clearly demonstrated that neurons in the early visual system …”

CS 597

so don t be shy about citing others
So, don’t be shy about citing others!
  • WEAK: “There has been some research about autonomous robots, but mostly confined to indoors environments.”
  • STRONG: “A recent review by DeSouza & Kak (2002) suggests that autonomous robot research has been mostly confined to indoors environments.”

And remember that a lot of what you know stems from what you have read!

  • WEAK: Try to explain why previous research does not work, hence your new work was required.
  • STRONG: Show how previous research has established a basis for your new work.

CS 597

for additional information
For additional information
    • SCampus
    • http://www.usc.edu/student-affairs/student-conduct/
    • Office for Student ConductFIG-107740-6666
  • Google search for “plagiarism,” etc.

CS 597

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