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The Importance of Land Titles and Other Assets To Women’s Economic Empowerment in Uganda Key Findings of the study Esther obaikol Uganda Land Alliance ULA – aBi dissemination meeting
The Research Contribution • This assignment seeks to support aBi’s development of innovative approaches and sound strategies to empower women, • Increase their contribution to agricultural development and • Advance gender equality in Ugandan agriculture • Ultimately strengthening the competitiveness of Uganda’s agro-processing sector • through enterprise /farm level interventions for agribusiness development and making use of the value chain approach ULA – aBi dissemination meeting
The Research Focus Focus: Agricultural households involved in commercial agriculture • Explain the gender gap in: • Land holding • Land titling • Other asset rights • To assess the degree to which the findings and hypotheses derived from the assumption held by general development paradigms that “Secure land tenure stimulates and sustains growth” – Holds true for both women and men farmers in present day Uganda ULA – aBi dissemination meeting
The Primary Research Questions • What are the main barriers of women and the gender gap in utilisation of land and acquiring title deed to land, as well as using the title deed for economic purposes? • What are the drivers of economic empowerment of women farmers? • What are the drivers for transforming gender relations in land issues? • Are there special entry points for addressing constraints and opportunities faced by youth. In this respect, are the gender gap and the gender disparities of special character? ULA – aBi dissemination meeting
The Hypothesis • H1: Women farmers with secure land tenure are more engaged in agribusiness • H2: Women’s involvement in agribusiness translates into economic empowerment • H3: Secure access to land for commercial agricultural production translates into accumulation of other assets ULA – aBi dissemination meeting
Selection of Study Districts ULA – aBi dissemination meeting
Data collection methods • Desk Review to inform primary data collection instruments • House hold surveys (Man, woman, Youth) • FGDs disaggregated based on gender and age = four groups (elderly males, elderly females, young males and young females) • Case studies (32 per district of successful and unsuccessful farmers) • District Validation meetings ULA – aBi dissemination meeting
KEY FINDINGS • H1: Women farmers with secure land tenure are more engaged in agribusiness Security of tenure is more an idea of perception than it is in law. With this in mind: • Merry widows and Miserable Marrieds exception of Hoima) • Single women whether divorced or never married are more engaged have more secure rights to land and engage in agribusiness • Gulu , the Continuum of rights harnesses women to the extent that they can participate throughout the value chain Hypothesis holds true! ULA – aBi dissemination meeting
H2: Women’s involvement in agribusiness translates into economic empowerment • Economic empowerment = reduced inequalities in the power to make choices in participation or assessing benefits that one stands to gain from an enterprise • Horizontal integration • Produce more quality & quantity • Access to inputs, markets, storage, labour, capital • Access to land either for purchase, rent, e.t.c • Vertical Integration • Adding value to product • Processing, marketing, e.t.c ULA – aBi dissemination meeting
Drivers for Economic empowerment • Availability of land and fertility of soil • Farm inputs • Affordable agricultural loans • Adequate training • Pesticides • Availability of markets always comes last for women • Scepticism about farmer groups (only Ntungamo) H2 The participation in agribusiness does not necessarily translate into the empowerment of women.There is potential of fostering the economic empowerment for women by addressing the challenges they face. ULA – aBi dissemination meeting
H3: Secure access to land for commercial agricultural production translates into accumulation of other assets The drivers for transforming gender relations on land hinge on taking land out of the private domain into the public domain • Commoditization of land meaning that it is no longer a social good but an economic good (Continuum of rights where communal holdings are strong) • Land Administration • The role of faith ULA – aBi dissemination meeting
4. Cultural Sexism • Patriarchy entrenched in culture • Entrenched in law and policy • Self discrimination by women • Failure to see alternatives to tenure security. • Differential access to factors of production H3: Access to land for agricultural production(for commercial purposes) greatly contributes to the accumulation of other physical assets. ULA – aBi dissemination meeting
ULA’S VIEW OF GENDER EQUALITY ON LAND ULA – aBi dissemination meeting
WAY FORWARD • No unitary approach as there are differences across the regions • Common threads • Capacity building of land administration and dispute resolution both formal and informal (Women realizing rights to resources) • Rural Women Assemblies ( 16th October) • Land for Women in Agribusiness Tracking Platforms (small networks which can share information, monitor and report on land relevant concerns and developments at community level, to influence national policies and processes Women raising voice). • Advocacy- Lobby/Knowledge management/sensitisation/media work (Women realizing rights to land) ULA – aBi dissemination meeting