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Risks and Hazards to Consider. Unit 3. Unit 3 Overview. This unit describes: The importance of identifying and analyzing possible hazards that could occur at an event The risks and vulnerabilities associated with each hazard. Unit Objectives.

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Risks and Hazards to Consider

Unit 3

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Unit 3 Overview

This unit describes:

  • The importance of identifying and analyzing possible hazards that could occur at an event

  • The risks and vulnerabilities associated with each hazard

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Unit Objectives

At the conclusion of this unit, participants will be able to:

  • Identify hazards that are most likely to affect special events

  • Identify the risks presented by the hazards

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Unit Objectives (cont.)

  • Identify strategies for overcoming and minimizing risks and hazards associated with a special event

  • Describe the elements of a contingency plan

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Hazard Analysis

  • Definition: Process used to anticipate hazards; likelihood, frequency, damage, impact, and community vulnerability.

  • Awareness and foresight of potential cascading events are important

  • Special events pose increased risk for incidents

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Conducting a Hazard Analysis

Conducting a hazard analysis involves four steps:

  • Identify the hazards

  • Profile the identified hazards

  • Perform a risk index to prioritize the hazards

  • Plan for vulnerabilities

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Identify Hazards

Reference sources for identifying hazards:

  • The jurisdiction’s existing hazard analysis

  • Historical data, especially as they relate to similar hazards

  • Statistical data about the hazards that are most likely to occur in your area

  • Specific and unique hazards to the event

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Activity 3.1 - Hazard ID

  • Divide into small groups

  • Identify 5 hazards most likely to occur at your event

  • Reconvene and discuss with the group

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Profile Hazards

  • A hazard profile determines:

    • Magnitude

    • Frequency

    • Duration

    • Speed of onset

“Hazard Vulnerability Assessment” Job Aids Page A-55

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Profile Hazards (cont.)

  • Use Hazard Profile Worksheet

    • Consult all available sources of info regarding the event

    • Complete profile for each hazard

    • Do not ignore low-risk hazards – plan for these anyway

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Activity 3.2 – Profiling Hazards

  • Same groups as previous exercise

  • Use worksheets in Student Manual

  • Complete hazard profile form for one of the hazards identified

  • Reconvene and discuss with the class

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Prioritizing Risks/Hazards

  • Risk is defined as the predicted impact that a hazard would have on people, services, and specific facilities at the event and in the community

  • Quantifying risk enables planners to focus on those hazards that pose the highest threat to life, the environment, or property

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Prioritizing Risks/Hazards (cont.)

  • Quantify the risks – key questions

    • What level of coverage is in the community’s EOP?

    • Are critical facilities affected?

    • Are local personnel trained and equipped to respond?

    • Could responders be delayed for any reason? For how long?

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Prioritizing Risks/Hazards (cont.)

  • Quantifying risk involves:

    • Identifying elements of the event that are potentially at risk from a specific hazard.

    • Developing response priorities. Risk to life is always the highest priority.

    • Assigning severity ratings based on the potential impact.

    • Compiling risk data into event risk profiles.

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Prioritizing Risks/Hazards (cont.)

  • Priority 1: Life safety, including hazard areas, high-risk populations, and potential search and rescue situations.

  • Priority 2: Essential facilities. Response personnel cannot respond if their own facilities are affected.

  • Priority 3: Critical infrastructure that are essential to life safety and that would adversely affect response efforts if they were disrupted.

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Prioritizing Risks/Hazards (cont.)

  • Assign a hazard severity rating or risk index.

    • Predicts the damage that can be expected as a result of the hazard.

    • Use the Hazard Vulnerability Assessment table to calculate the ratings and impact.

    • Assign a value to each characteristic.

    • Assign a rating for each type of hazard data.

“Hazard Vulnerability Assessment” Job Aids Page A-56

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Prioritizing Risks/Hazards (cont.)

  • To determine the overall risk value for each hazard:

    • Select a hazard

    • Assign a value of 1-4 to each characteristic

    • Add the values

    • Divide by 4 to arrive at an overall risk value

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Activity 3.3 Ranking the Hazards

  • Same groups as previous exercise

  • Use worksheets in Student Manual

  • Complete the Hazard Vulnerability Assessment for each hazard identified and determine the overall risk value

  • Reconvene and discuss with the class

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Plan for Vulnerabilities

  • Develop scenarios for the highest-risk hazards identified

  • A scenario will trace the hazard’s development into an emergency

  • Scenarios should be realistic

  • Scenarios require brainstorming by event planners

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Plan for Vulnerabilities (cont.)

  • A scenario should describe:

    • The initial warning of the event

    • The potential overall impact on the community

    • The potential impact of the event on specific community sectors

    • The potential consequences, such as casualties, damage, and loss of services

    • The actions and resources that would be needed to deal with the situation

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Plan for Vulnerabilities (cont.)

  • Creating scenarios helps to identify situations that may exist in a disaster. These situations should be used to help ensure that a community is prepared should the hazard event occur.

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Activity 3.4 Planning for Vulnerabilities

  • Same groups as previous exercise

  • Use worksheet in Student Manual

  • Complete the scenario worksheet for your most highly ranked hazard

  • Reconvene and discuss with the class

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Terrorism Hazards

  • Special events are prime targets for terrorist activity by activist groups:

    • Political

    • Religious

    • Racial

    • Environmental

    • Special Interest

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Terrorism Hazards (cont.)

  • Planning can lessen likelihood of surprise incident

    • Descriptive intelligence gathering

    • Predictive interpretation/probability forecast

    • Operational readiness (training, equipment, practiced response)

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Terrorism Hazards (cont.)

  • Law enforcement should take lead in forecasting and planning

  • Planners should assign roles and responsibilities for agencies

  • ICS is important for response

“Criminal and Terrorist Risks” Job Aids Pages 1-14 – 1-16

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Terrorism Hazards (cont.)

  • Planners and local law enforcement should work with State and Federal partners to gather information and develop contingency plans

  • State and local data from Federally mandated assessments should be reviewed (Jurisdiction and Vulnerability Assessment)

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Identifying Mitigation Actions

  • Hazard mitigation - Action taken to reduce risk to life and property from a hazard

  • Mitigation planning has four steps:

    • Organize resources

    • Assess risks

    • Develop a mitigation plan

    • Implement plan and monitoring progress

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Hazard Mitigation Plan

  • Identify, evaluate, and prioritize actions

  • Address several questions:

    • Which actions can help us meet our mitigation objectives?

    • What capabilities do we have to implement these actions?

    • What impacts will these actions have on our community?

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Mitigation Categories

  • Mitigation actions have six broad categories:

    • Prevention

    • Property protection

    • Public education and awareness

    • Natural resource protection

    • Emergency services

    • Structural projects

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Mitigation Implementation

  • To implement a mitigation plan and activities, you must identify:

    • Resources

    • Timeframes

    • Partners

    • Responsibilities

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Contingency Plans

  • Consider every high-risk, high-impact incident

  • Consult with all parties who may respond to an emergency situation

“Contingency Plans” Job Aids Pages 2-4 – 2-5