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  1. Examinations Dr. Kosala Marambe Medical Education Unit

  2. Lecture outline • General feeling of students • The purpose of assessments in education Why and what ? • Timing of assessments and types of assessments • Good practices…

  3. Examinations

  4. Examinations

  5. Examinations

  6. Examinations

  7. ExaminationsCourtsey Dr.I Karunatilake

  8. Examinations - Why? • To find out whether the students have acquired knowledge the set competencies the desirable attitudes

  9. Student Assessments ? • Making a value judgment • Measurement • Feedback • Certification • Ranking • Motivate learners • Direct learning in a desirable direction

  10. Many uses of student assessments Courtesy internet

  11. Year 1 -4 assessments • Theory • Practical • Attitudes • Viva – verification of information

  12. Streams • SBM Scientific basis of Medicine CLR Communication Learning and Research • DIS Doctor in Society • HCT Hospital and community training

  13. E X E X E L E C T I V E S S B M Modules C L R S B M modules DIS DIS C L R Year One

  14. Types of tests • Formative To give feedback to students To get feedback on how students are progressing • Summative (semester exams) Performance or achievement is assessed for certification

  15. Formative assessment • Is generally carried out throughout a course or project • Formative assessment, also referred to as "educative assessment," is used to aid learning • In an educational setting, formative assessment might be a teacher (or peer) or the learner, providing feedback on a student's work, and would not necessarily be used for grading purposes • Formative assessments are diagnostic

  16. Summative assessment • is generally carried out at the end of a course or project • In an educational setting, summative assessments are typically used to assign students a course grade • Summative assessments are evaluative

  17. analogy • Formative assessment - when the cook tastes the soup • Summative assessment -when the guest taste the soup

  18. Summative assessments and Formative assessments – possible connection

  19. Continuous assessments • held during the semester • percentage taken for the end semester examination • Could be written tests, practical, assignments, case discussions, student presentations

  20. Summative examinations • Semester examinations • Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ) • True false and best answer • Time per each question 3 minutes

  21. True/False MCQ Facilitated diffusion (a) requires ATP as an energy source (b) saturates at high solute concentrations (c) requires energy by coupling with an ion gradient (d) transports against the solute concentration gradient (e) involves a carrier protein

  22. Single best answer -example • A 65-year-old man has difficulty rising from a seated position and straightening his trunk, but he has no difficulty flexing his leg. • Which of the following muscles is most likely to have been injured? • *A. Gluteus maximus • B. Gluteus minimus • C. Hamstrings • D. Iliopsoas • E. Obturator internus

  23. MCQ 3 – Basic Sciences Within 2 hours, most of the diners who had a meal of fried chicken, fried potatoes, peas, chocolate eclairs, and coffee became violently ill, with nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Analysis of the food is most likely to yield large numbers of which of the following organisms? A. Escherichia coli B. Proteus mirabilis C. Salmonella typhimurium *D. Staphylococcus aureus E. Streptococcus faecalis

  24. Written Paper • Short answer questions (List, state, define the term learning) • Structured Essay questions (15 minutes) • Essay questions (20 to 30 minutes)

  25. Describe the pathology of nephrotic syndrome in children 10 marks 20 mts Define nephrotic syndrome 2 marks 4 mts Classify nephrotic syndrome in children 3marks 6mts Describe the characteristic urinary findings, light microscopic, electron microscopic and immunoflourescent findings in minimal change glomerulonephritis 5 marks 10 mts Essay and structured essay comparison of essay and SEQ

  26. Practical exams • Objective structured practical examinations (OSPE) • Data interpretation stations • Identify structures - Spots • Role play situations (to test communication) • Viva voce

  27. Example of an OSPE • Task - Examine the specimen of urine provided for proteins. • Check list 1. Does he take a urine sample to 2/3 level in the test tube? 2. Does he boil upper 1/3 of the column? 3. Does he add 2% acetic acid drop by drop? 4. Does he compare change in the top layer with the bottom layer of urine?

  28. In summary • The main features of OSCE/OSPE is that both the process and the product are tested giving importance to individual competencies. • The examination covers a broad range of clinical skills much wider than a conventional examination. • The scoring is objective, since standards of competence are preset and agreed check lists are used for scoring. Where questions are asked in response stations, these are always objective.

  29. OSCE and OSPE • Similarly, OSCEs and OSPEs can be made for any subject. At the end of the examination, the scores obtained in the procedure stations are totaled to give the candidate score. • Scores at individual stations can also be released to give the candidate a meaningful feedback.

  30. OSCE checklist

  31. Viva voce • A panel of examiners (2 or 3) • Ask questions from the examinee • Duration varies ( 5-10 mts)

  32. Research report • Assessed using Marking schemes Rating scales Checklists

  33. Assigning grades • Each module is like a subject • Assessed separately • Marked out of 100 marks • Is converted to a grade based on the distribution of marks • Minimum pass mark is 49.5

  34. Pass • Pass grade is C • A student has to pass all modules in order to pass second or third year exam • GPA of 2 or more (if a student pass all the modules with a grade C,GPA will be 2, therefore assured a pass)

  35. Grade Point Average (GPA) • The GPA is the weighted average of the credit units and grade points of all the modules taken by a student. It is a measure of overall performance of the student. The GPA is computed using the formula given below. •  cigi • GPA = -------------- •  ci • ci and gi are the numbers of credit units and the grade points of the ith course unit respectively.

  36. Award of classes • Based on the GPA, decided at the end of year 2 and at the end of year 4. • GPA Class awarded 3.70 – 4.00 First Class 3.30 – 3.69 Second Class (Upper) 3.00 – 3.29 Second Class (Lower) 2.00 – 2.99 Pass < 2.00 Fail

  37. GPA Calculation… • Add 24, 9,22.2, 8,4 and divided by total number of credits • 67.2/18 • GPA =3.7 • First class

  38. Distinctions and medals • Subject wise • Awarded by the respective Departments • Criteria laid out by the Dept. concerned

  39. Take home message • Exams are organized to ensure justice • A range of measurements are used • A number of tools are used

  40. The curriculum instructs teachers what to teach; The exam instructs students what to learn. Donald Melnick, 1991

  41. Examinations • Examinations drive learning • Examiners are not “monsters”

  42. Summary

  43. Examinations

  44. Most of the images are from the internet • They were used to illustrate certain points • Acknowledged with thanks Kosala Marambe