April 7 th , 2011. Childhood Nutrition. Objectives:. Discuss the basic eating habits of toddlers and preschoolers. Describe foods most appropriate for toddlers and preschoolers, including three foods to avoid.
Discuss the basic eating habits of toddlers and preschoolers.
Describe foods most appropriate for toddlers and preschoolers, including three foods to avoid.
List two child-friendly sources of the nutrients calcium, iron, vitamin D, and fiber.
Define “food jags” and “picky eating.”
Identify child and school-aged children caloric needs according to age, gender, and activity level.
Briefly explain the likely cause of the rise in childhood obesity in the U.S.
List three key messages from MyPyramid for Kids.
List nutrients for which the National School Lunch Program must provide minimum levels.
Two age categories during early childhood:
Toddlers: 1-3 years old
Preschoolers: 3-5 years old
Growth slows significantly:
Average weight gain in 2nd year: 3-5 pounds
Average height gain: 3-5 inches
Appetite decreases: monitor growth to determine if child is eating enough
Tend not to eat much at one sitting
Need to eat small meals and nutrient-dense foods
Toddlers are very active; need 1,000–1,600 calories daily
Provide nutrient-dense meats, bean, fruits, vegetables, milk, whole grains
Avoid choking hazards: hot dogs, nuts, whole grapes, hard candy, popcorn, raisins, raw vegetables should not be given to children younger than four
Young children need to consume enough calcium and iron.
Children 1–3 years of age: 500 mg/day of calcium
Two 8 oz. glasses of milk provide about 600 mg
Iron deficiency is most common nutritional deficiency in children, can lead to developmental delays
Results from too much milk or other iron-poor foods
Provide lean meats, iron-fortified cereals
Young children need to consume enough vitamin D and fiber.
Vitamin D important to prevent rickets
Ages 1-8 need 5 µg (200 IU)
Fiber: 1-3 years need 19 g/day; 4-8 years: 25 g/day
Whole grains, fruits, vegetables can meet needs
Young children need nutrient-dense beverages.
Need milk and water, avoid sodas, sugary drinks
Too much milk can displace important nutrients such as iron.
“Picky eating” and “food jags” are common in small children.
Serve as good role models
Encourage variety and new foods
Determine what food is offered, when and where
Children should be allowed to determine whether or not to eat the food and how much to eat.
Food jags are usually temporary and usually not a health problem.
Nuts, eggs, milk, soybeans, wheat, chicken, fish, shellfish
=3 ¼ years
Quality of diet impacts growth
Caregivers should encourage and model healthy habits.
School-aged children are experiencing higher rates of obesity and diabetes.
Due to many factors: too many calories, too little physical activity
Excess calories from sugary drinks, sports drinks, high fat foods, larger portions
Less physical activity due to increased “screen” time, less physical education at school
American Academy of Pediatrics recommends:
Caregivers act as role models of healthy eating
Offer children healthy snacks of vegetables, fruits, whole grains
Increase physical activity
Limit screen time to no more than two hours daily
Childhood obesity increases risk of type 2 diabetes
Early intervention and treatment important
Entire family should adopt healthy diet and exercise to manage diabetes
MyPyramid for Kids can help guide food choices: Ages 2-5; 6-11
Slogan: “Eat Right. Exercise. Have Fun.”
Be physically active every day.
Choose healthier foods from each group.
Eat more of some food groups than others.
Eat foods from every group every day.
Make the right choices for you.
Take it one step at a time.
National School Lunch Program provides nutritionally balanced, low-cost or free lunches.
Meals must meet certain nutrient guidelines
Regulated by USDA
USDA donates commodity foods to lower costs
Some schools also have school breakfast programs.
Eating breakfast associated with healthier body weight, academic performance, psychosocial function, school attendance rate
May benefit cognitive function (especially memory)