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April 7 th , 2011. Childhood Nutrition. Objectives:. Discuss the basic eating habits of toddlers and preschoolers. Describe foods most appropriate for toddlers and preschoolers, including three foods to avoid.

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april 7 th 2011
April 7th, 2011
  • Childhood Nutrition

Discuss the basic eating habits of toddlers and preschoolers.

Describe foods most appropriate for toddlers and preschoolers, including three foods to avoid.

List two child-friendly sources of the nutrients calcium, iron, vitamin D, and fiber.

Define “food jags” and “picky eating.”

Identify child and school-aged children caloric needs according to age, gender, and activity level.

Briefly explain the likely cause of the rise in childhood obesity in the U.S.

List three key messages from MyPyramid for Kids.

List nutrients for which the National School Lunch Program must provide minimum levels.

growth and development ages 1 6 yrs
Growth and Development Ages 1-6 yrs
  • After age 1 yr, the growth rate slows
  • Wt gain about 4-6 lbs/year
  • Length or height increases 3 inches/yr
  • Body fat decreases, muscle and bone mass increase
  • Acquire skills to allow self-feeding, eating
  • Develop food preferences
nutrient needs
Nutrient Needs
  • Energy
    • Age 1: about 1000 kcals/day
    • Age 3: about 1300 kcals/day
    • Age 10: about 2000 kcals/day
  • Protein RDA
    • 1-3 yrs= 1.1 g/kg 13g/day
    • 4-8 yrs= 0.95 g/kg 19g/day
    • Maintains tissue, make new tissue, plasma, hormones, enzymes and antibodies
young children s nutritional needs and issues
Young Children’s Nutritional Needs and Issues

Two age categories during early childhood:

Toddlers: 1-3 years old

Preschoolers: 3-5 years old

Growth slows significantly:

Average weight gain in 2nd year: 3-5 pounds

Average height gain: 3-5 inches

young children s nutritional needs and issues1
Young Children’s Nutritional Needs and Issues

Appetite decreases: monitor growth to determine if child is eating enough

Tend not to eat much at one sitting

Need to eat small meals and nutrient-dense foods

Toddlers are very active; need 1,000–1,600 calories daily

Provide nutrient-dense meats, bean, fruits, vegetables, milk, whole grains

Avoid choking hazards: hot dogs, nuts, whole grapes, hard candy, popcorn, raisins, raw vegetables should not be given to children younger than four

nutrient needs1
Nutrient needs
  • Fat
    • Use whole milk (not low fat or skim milk) until the child is 2 yrs old and eating other foods that contain fat
    • Essential fatty acid: Linoleic acid
      • Deficiency results in poor growth and the skin condition eczema
      • Food sources: Safflower oil, Sunflower oil, Corn oil, Sesame oil, Walnut oil, nuts (walnuts, almonds, peanuts), seeds, whole grains legumes, tofu and chicken (dark meat)
minerals and vitamins
Minerals and Vitamins
  • Eat a variety of foods from all food groups
  • Milk and dairy products are good sources of calcium and phosphorous
  • Iron-deficiency anemia is the most common nutritional deficiency in young children, iron-rich foods are important
young children s nutritional needs and issues2
Young Children’s Nutritional Needs and Issues

Young children need to consume enough calcium and iron.

Children 1–3 years of age: 500 mg/day of calcium

Two 8 oz. glasses of milk provide about 600 mg

Iron deficiency is most common nutritional deficiency in children, can lead to developmental delays

Results from too much milk or other iron-poor foods

Provide lean meats, iron-fortified cereals

young children s nutritional needs and issues3
Young Children’s Nutritional Needs and Issues

Young children need to consume enough vitamin D and fiber.

Vitamin D important to prevent rickets

Ages 1-8 need 5 µg (200 IU)

Fiber: 1-3 years need 19 g/day; 4-8 years: 25 g/day

Whole grains, fruits, vegetables can meet needs

Young children need nutrient-dense beverages.

Need milk and water, avoid sodas, sugary drinks

Too much milk can displace important nutrients such as iron.

nutrition issues
Nutrition issues
  • Iron deficiency anemia
    • Decreases the energy level of the child
    • Iron carries oxygen in the blood and transports oxygen within cells where it is needed to produce energy
    • Affects attention span, mood, learning ability and intellectual performance
preventing iron deficiency
Preventing Iron Deficiency
  • Limit milk to 3-4 cups/day so as not to displace iron-rich foods
  • Include iron-rich foods in meals & snacks
    • Beef, pork, chicken, fish, tofu, eggs, cooked beans, cereals with iron, enriched corn or flour tortillas, enriched rice or pasta, dark leafy greens, peas, dried fruits
preventing iron deficiency1
Preventing Iron Deficiency
  • Include Vit C rich foods/drinks to increase absorption of iron
    • Vit. C foods:
    • Vegetables (tomato, broccoli, cabbage, bell pepper, potato)
    • fruits (orange, mango, strawberry, papaya)
    • juices (orange, grapefruit, tomato)
  • Make sure foods eaten provide 10mg/iron per day, or else supplement may be needed
  • Milk
  • 100% fruit juice
  • Water
  • Young children can become dehydrated if they have fever, diarrhea, or vomiting if fluids are not replaced
Yes, it is normal, and is called food jag
  • Nothing lasts forever
  • It’s common
  • Continue to offer wide variety of foods, different shapes, color/texture.
young children s nutritional needs and issues4
Young Children’s Nutritional Needs and Issues

“Picky eating” and “food jags” are common in small children.

Parents should:

Serve as good role models

Encourage variety and new foods

Determine what food is offered, when and where

Children should be allowed to determine whether or not to eat the food and how much to eat.

Food jags are usually temporary and usually not a health problem.

food preferences in a pre school child
Food preferences in a Pre-school child
  • Single foods not combination dishes
  • Finger foods
  • Moist foods, dry foods hard to swallow
  • Warm foods, not hot foods
  • Colorful foods
  • New foods should be introduced one at a time in small amounts
  • Eat with other children
  • Small servings, small plates, small tables+chairs for small people
dental caries
Dental Caries
  • Development of caries from
  • 1. Diet composition, especially sucrose, a carbohydrate
  • 2. Presence of acid-producing bacteria in dental plaque
  • 3. Saliva, buffer to raise pH and provides mechanical cleansing of teeth
preventing dental caries
Preventing Dental Caries
  • Decrease intake of sucrose-containing food and items (gum, breath mints, soda)
  • Avoid solid, soft, sticky sweets that stick to teeth
  • Encourage child to snack on crisp, fibrous foods
  • Brush and floss daily after meals & snacks
  • Visit dentist for cleaning and check-up regularly
food allergies
Food Allergies
  • Involve antibody production, reaction to a food protein or other large molecule
  • Possible symptoms: nausea, vomiting, skin rash, inflamed nasal and lung passages, asthma, or anaphylactic shock
  • Foods that cause allergic reaction:

Nuts, eggs, milk, soybeans, wheat, chicken, fish, shellfish

food intolerance
Food intolerance
  • Symptoms of an adverse food reaction without antibody production
method to calculate age
Method to calculate age
  • A. Write down the date when measurements are taken in year, month and day
  • B. Write down the child’s date of birth and subtract from A
  • C. If #s cannot be subtracted, borrow 12 months from the year and 30 days from the month
sample calculation 1
Sample Calculation 1
  • Measurement date: July 20, 1997
  • Birthdate: April 3, 1994
  • What age should be used to plot her measurements?
  • Year Month Day =17 days->1 month
  • 1997 7 20 =3+1 month->4mon
  • -1994 -4 - 3 =4 mon->1/4 year
  • 3 3 17= 3 years, 4 mos

=3 ¼ years

sample calculation 2
Sample Calculation 2
  • Measuring Date: February 21, 2008
  • Birthdate: October 27, 2005
  • Year Month Day
  • 2008 2 21
  • -2005 -10 -27
  • 2 years, 3 months, 24 days
  • 2 years, 4 months
  • 2 ¼ years
sample calculation 3
Sample Calculation 3
  • Measurement Date: March 8, 2008
  • Birth Date: June 19, 2001
  • 6 years, 8 months, 19 days
  • 6 years, 9 months
  • 6 ¾ years
growth and development age 6 to 9 years
Growth and Development Age 6 to 9 years
  • Growth rate slows down after age 7-8 yrs until the adolescent growth spurt which occurs around 9-14 yrs in girls and 11-16 yrs in boys
nutrient needs2
Nutrient needs
  • Energy: 90 kcals/kg for 4-6 yr olds
  • 70 kcals/kg for 7-10 yr olds
  • Protein 1.1 g/kg in 1-3 yr olds
  • 0.95g/kg in 4-8 yr olds
  • Growth rate indicates if energy intake is adequate
nutrient needs3
Nutrient Needs
  • Vitamin A (helps with vision)
    • Milk, yogurt, cheese, dark leafy green vegetable or dark yellow vegetables and fruits
  • Iron
  • Calcium
  • Zinc (if low: poor appetite, depressed growth)
    • Milk, yogurt, cheese, meat, poultry, fish
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder adhd
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
  • Onset is before 7 yrs old, affects 5-10% of school-age children
  • Inattention, excess motor activity, impulsiveness, and poor tolerance for frustration
  • Additives and sugar do not cause it
  • Controlled using stimulant medications
  • Anorexia/Loss of appetite is a side effect of medication
  • Give medication with or after meals
  • Friends
  • School meals
  • Vending machines at school
  • Parents/caretaker
  • After school activities
nutrition education activities
Nutrition Education Activities
  • Field trips to a farm, cannery, bakery
  • Making cheese or ice cream
  • Grow produce in a garden
  • Bake bread, prepare a recipe
  • Keep a food record
  • Cultural foods lessons and potluck
  • Teach science and math with nutrition
Childhood eating habits develop a nutritional foundation for the rest of the child’s life.
  • Children mimic behaviors
  • Caregiver serves as a role model
Depends on the child and his/her individual needs
  • Compare child’s diet to food pyramid, if consistent lack in certain food groups, this child might need supplement
  • Is it a vegan child?
  • Always remember food first
  • Watch out for overdosage!
obesity is becoming more prevalent in children how can parents reduce their children s risk

Obesity is becoming more prevalent in children, how can parents reduce their children’s risk?

preventing childhood obesity
Preventing Childhood Obesity
  • Emphasize foods that provide a balance of nutrients and appropriate kcals to reduce wt gain not achieve wt loss
  • Modify meal/snack(< desserts, fried foods)
  • Parents/caregivers set a good example
  • Respond to child’s hunger & satiety cues
  • Encourage physical activity
Increase Physical Activity
  • Role model
  • Balanced and healthy meal planning
  • Decrease TV/computer time
making meals matter for your school age child
Making Meals Matter for your School-Age Child
  • Write a menu for a 9 yr-old child
  • Name 1 creative or fun way to teach the child about your assigned food group
school aged children s nutritional needs and issues
School-Aged Children’s Nutritional Needs and Issues

Quality of diet impacts growth

Caregivers should encourage and model healthy habits.

School-aged children are experiencing higher rates of obesity and diabetes.

Due to many factors: too many calories, too little physical activity

Excess calories from sugary drinks, sports drinks, high fat foods, larger portions

Less physical activity due to increased “screen” time, less physical education at school

school aged children s nutritional needs and issues1
School-Aged Children’s Nutritional Needs and Issues

American Academy of Pediatrics recommends:

Caregivers act as role models of healthy eating

Offer children healthy snacks of vegetables, fruits, whole grains

Increase physical activity

Limit screen time to no more than two hours daily

Childhood obesity increases risk of type 2 diabetes

Early intervention and treatment important

Entire family should adopt healthy diet and exercise to manage diabetes

school aged children s nutritional needs and issues2
School-Aged Children’s Nutritional Needs and Issues

MyPyramid for Kids can help guide food choices: Ages 2-5; 6-11

Slogan: “Eat Right. Exercise. Have Fun.”

Key messages:

Be physically active every day.

Choose healthier foods from each group.

Eat more of some food groups than others.

Eat foods from every group every day.

Make the right choices for you.

Take it one step at a time.

school aged children s nutritional needs and issues3
School-Aged Children’s Nutritional Needs and Issues

National School Lunch Program provides nutritionally balanced, low-cost or free lunches.

Meals must meet certain nutrient guidelines

Regulated by USDA

USDA donates commodity foods to lower costs

Some schools also have school breakfast programs.

Eating breakfast associated with healthier body weight, academic performance, psychosocial function, school attendance rate

May benefit cognitive function (especially memory)