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Direct Manipulation Interfaces. Positive acceptance of an application Mastery of the interface Competence in performing tasks Ease in learning originally and in assimilating advanced features Confidence in the capacity to retain mastery over time Enjoyment in using the interface

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direct manipulation interfaces
Direct Manipulation Interfaces
  • Positive acceptance of an application
    • Mastery of the interface
    • Competence in performing tasks
    • Ease in learning originally and in assimilating advanced features
    • Confidence in the capacity to retain mastery over time
    • Enjoyment in using the interface
    • Eagerness to show off interfaces to novices
    • Desire to explore more powerful aspects
direct manipulation interfaces1
Direct Manipulation Interfaces
  • Attributes of direct-manipulation interfaces
    • Visibility of the objects and actions of interest
      • Example: Driving an automobile
    • Rapid, reversible, incremental actions
    • Replacement of types commands by a pointing action on the object of interest
    • Example: Dragging a file to a trash can versus “rm file.doc”
      • What about: “rm file*.doc”?
      • What about “rm *.*” with no undo?
direct manipulation interfaces2
Direct Manipulation Interfaces
  • Extensions of direct manipulation
    • Virtual reality – users are in an immersed environment
      • Reality is blocked out via a head-mounted display
      • Hand gestures (via a data glove) allow users to point, select, grasp and navigate
    • Augmented reality – user remains in normal surroundings, but adds a transparent overlay.
      • Examples – labeled buildings, hidden plumbing
      • Google: Project Glass
      • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W2E2zcFt9Xo
      • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tnRJaHZH9lo&feature=related
    • Tangible user interfaces – users manipulate physical objects
      • Example – putting several plastic blocks near each other to create an office floor plan
direct manipulation interfaces3
Direct Manipulation Interfaces
  • Command-line versus display editors versus word processors
    • The Tubeless Interface
direct manipulation interfaces4
Direct Manipulation Interfaces
  • Command-line versus display editors versus word processors
    • Single-line and Multi-line Editors (e.g., IBM MVS, VM, TSO, JCL)
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Direct Manipulation Interfaces
  • Command-line versus display editors versus word processors
    • Single-line and Multi-line Editors versus WYSIWYG (what you see is what you get) editors (e.g., Microsoft Word – early 1990s)
    • Example: Three basic modes of vi
      • Command mode (Telling the computer what to do: Low level commands, e.g., move the cursor to the right one character)
        • Default when you enter vi.
        • Most letters, or short sequences of letters, that you type will be interpreted as commands
        • Pressing Esc when you're in command mode, your terminal will beep at you. This is a very good way to tell when you're in command mode
      • Insert mode (Entering the content)
        • Whatever you type is inserted in the file at the cursor position
        • Press Esc to end insert mode, and return to command mode.
      • Line mode (Telling the computer what to: High level commands, e.g. Save)
        • To enter line mode from command mode, type a colon ( : )
        • Your cursor moves to the bottom of the screen, by a colon prompt.
        • Type a line mode command, then press Enter.
direct manipulation interfaces6
Direct Manipulation Interfaces
  • Command-line versus display editors versus word processors
    • Single-line and Multi-line Editors (e.g., vi)

Starting vi and Saving Files

Starting vi: vi filename (start editing filename, create it if necessary)

Saving the file you're working on and/or leaving vi: :wq (write the file to disk and quit)

Quit without saving any changes: :q!

:w! newfile (write all lines from the entire current file into the file 'newfile', overwriting any existing newfile)

:n,m w! newfile (write the lines from n to m, inclusive, into the file newfile, overwriting any existing newfile)

direct manipulation interfaces7
Direct Manipulation Interfaces
  • Command-line versus display editors versus word processors
    • Single-line and Multi-line Editors
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Direct Manipulation Interfaces
  • Command-line versus display editors versus word processors
    • Single-line and Multi-line Editors
      • Searching for text
      • Inserting text
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Direct Manipulation Interfaces
  • Command-line versus display editors versus word processors
    • Single-line and Multi-line Editors
      • Deleting text
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Direct Manipulation Interfaces
  • Command-line versus display editors versus word processors
    • Single-line and Multi-line Editors
      • Cutting and Pasting
      • Miscellaneous Commands
direct manipulation interfaces11
Direct Manipulation Interfaces
  • Command-line versus display editors versus word processors
    • Early 1980s – Text editing was done with line-oriented command languages
    • Nroff/troff: Unix based word processor

.nf = no-fill, you use for graphs or text that you don't want spaces to be ignored

.ce # = centers by the # of sentences you enter

.ti # = .ti indents but only for one line, so if you have one sentence that needs to be indented 8 spaces but the rest of the page is indented 3 you can use .ti 8 for that single sentence

.fi = fill-in, extra space will be ignored and text that is entered like this, the fill-in command will continue until you enter a .nf command and vice-versa

.in # = # is the number of spaces you want the text indented, this command will be in place until you put in a new .in command...if you want something to not be indented you put in .in 0

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Direct Manipulation Interfaces
  • Command-line editors
    • Who would use these interfaces?
    • Why?
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Direct Manipulation Interfaces
  • Command-line editors
    • Who would use these interfaces?
    • Why?
      • Mastery of the interface
      • Competence in performing tasks
      • Ease in learning originally and in assimilating advanced features
      • Confidence in the capacity to retain mastery over time
      • Enjoyment in using the interface
      • Eagerness to show off interfaces to novices
      • Desire to explore more powerful aspects
direct manipulation interfaces14
Direct Manipulation Interfaces
  • Command-line editors
    • Who would use these interfaces?
    • Why?
      • BETTER THAN A TYPEWRITER
      • BETTER THAN A SLIDE RULE
      • BETTER THAN A CALCULATOR
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Direct Manipulation Interfaces
  • Advantages of WYSIWYG Editors
    • Users see a full page of text
      • 20 to 60 lines provides a context for each sentence
    • The document is seen as it will appear when printed
      • Eliminating the clutter of formatting commands
    • Cursor action is visible
      • Indicates where to focus attention and apply action
    • Cursor motion is natural
      • Arrow keys or mouse provide natural physical mechanisms for moving the cursor
    • Labeled icons make frequent actions rapid
      • Toolbar for frequent actions
    • Immediate display of the results of an action
      • Example: Clicking a button to center text provides immediate result
    • Rapid response and display
      • Full page of text in a fraction of a second
    • Easily reversible actions
      • Example: Undo, backspace
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Direct Manipulation Interfaces
  • Technology advancements evolving from word processing
    • Integration of graphics, spreadsheets, animations, photographs, etc.
    • Desktop publishing software
    • Presentation software
    • Hypermedia environments and the World Wide Web (hyperlinks to documents)
    • Improved macro facilities (e.g., construct, save and edit sequences of frequently used actions)
    • Spell checkers and thesauri
    • Grammar checkers
      • Use of passive voice
      • Excessive use of certain words
      • Lack of parallel construction
    • Document assemblers
      • Contracts
      • Wills
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Direct Manipulation Interfaces
  • Spreadsheets
    • 1979 – VisiCalc from a Harvard Business School student
    • 254 rows and 63 columns
    • Functions within a cell as it relates to other cells
    • Simulation of an accountants spreadsheet
    • Lotus 1-2-3 dominated the market in the 1980s
    • Today Excel dominates
      • Graphics displays
      • Multiple windows
      • Statistical routines
      • Database access (e.g., Price List to Service Catalog)
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Direct Manipulation Interfaces
  • Spatial Data Management
    • Geographic applications – Nicholas Negroponte at MIT
    • Display of the world and able to zoom in on the Pacific Ocean to see markers for convoys of military ship
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Direct Manipulation Interfaces
  • Spatial Data Management
    • ArcView – ESRI
      • Global Information Systems (Demo)
      • Select type of information to display (roads, population, rainfall, topography, political boundaries
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Direct Manipulation Interfaces
  • Video Games
    • The most exciting, well-engineered, commercially successful application of direct-manipulation concepts?
    • Pong
    • Pacman (http://www.activitypad.com/online-games/pacman/)
    • Field of action is visual and compelling
    • Button presses, joystick motions and knob rotations produce rapid response on the screen
    • No syntax to remember
    • Error messages are rare – the results of the action are obvious and easily reversed
    • Often there is continuous display of the score (competition between others and the player themselves)
      • Positive reinforcement that encourages mastery
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Direct Manipulation Interfaces
  • Video Games
    • Educational Video Games – direct manipulation
      • SimCity – education on urban planning
      • The Sims – stronger attraction to women then men
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Direct Manipulation Interfaces
  • Video Games
    • Computer Role Playing Games (CRPGs)
      • Players assume the role of a fictional character
      • Activity takes place in a fictional world
      • User’s control many of their character's actions
      • Myst
    • Massively Multiplayer On-Line Role Playing Games (MMORPGs)
      • A large number of players interact with one another in a virtual world
      • Interaction is in a persistent world
        • hosted by the game's publisher
        • continues to evolve while the player is away from the game
      • Worldwide MMORPGs revenues exceeded half a billion dollars in 2005
      • World of Warcraft
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Direct Manipulation Interfaces
  • Video Games versus Business Applications
    • Game players
      • Engaged in competition with a system or other players
      • Seek entertainment and focus on challenge
      • May prefer random events
    • Application users
      • Prefer a strong internal locus of control
      • Focus on their tasks and may resent too many playful distractions
      • Do not prefer random events
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Direct Manipulation Interfaces
  • Computer-aided Design
    • Automobiles, electronic circuitry, aircraft, mechanical engineering
    • Structural engineering, floorplans, interiors, landscaping, plumbing, electrical installation, etc.
    • When the design is complete, the program can provide information regarding:
      • Current
      • Voltage drops
      • Fabrication costs
      • Manufacturing problems
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Direct Manipulation Interfaces
  • Computer – aided Manufacturing and Process Control
    • Honeywell’s Experion Process Knowledge System
      • Provides the manager of a oil refinery or power utility plant with a colorized schematic of the plant
      • Can indicate with a red line a sensor value that is out of range
      • With a single click the operator can get a more detailed view of the troubling component
      • A second click can provide more detailed information the sensor, or reset a value or circuit
      • Basic strategy: eliminate the need for complex commands that the operator might only need to recall during a once-a-year emergency
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Direct Manipulation Interfaces
  • Direct Manipulation in Office Automation
    • Xerox Star
      • Sophisticated Text Formatting
      • Graphics
      • Multiple Fonts
      • High Resolution
      • Cursor Based Interface
    • Apple Lisa
      • Precursor to the Macintosh
      • Hardware and software designs supported
        • Pull-down menus
        • Multi-window manipulation
        • Editing of graphics and text
        • Dragging of icons
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Direct Manipulation Interfaces
  • Direct Manipulation in Office Automation
    • MS-DOS Commands vs. Macintosh Direct Manipulation
      • Tasks: Creating, copying, renaming, erasing files
      • After training and practice, average task times:
        • MS-DOS is 5.8 minutes
        • Macintosh is 4.8 minutes
      • After training and practice, average errors:
        • MS-DOS is 2.0
        • Macintosh is 0.8
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Direct Manipulation Interfaces
  • Continuing evolution of direct manipulation
    • Quicken
    • Home Automation
      • Direct manipulation on a floor plan of:
        • Burglar alarms
        • Heat sensors
        • Smoke detectors
        • Opening/closing curtains or screens
        • Air conditioning and heating
        • Audio/video speakers or screens
          • E.g., users can route sound from a MP3 player located in the living room to the kitchen by dragging the MP3 icon into the kitchen
    • Virtual Worlds
      • Travel through the human body
      • Ride an electron cloud as it spins around a nucleus
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Direct Manipulation Interfaces
  • Continuing evolution of direct manipulation
    • Problems with direct manipulation
      • Spatial or visual representation are not necessarily an improvement over text
        • Especially for blind or visually impaired users
      • Direct manipulation designs may consume considerable screen space
        • May result in scrolling or multiple actions
      • Users must learn the meanings of visual representations
        • Icon interpretation
      • For experienced typists, taking a hand off the keyboard to move a mouse may take more time then typing the relevant command
      • Users may not share the same understanding of the metaphor, analogy, or conceptual model with the designer (testing is required)
      • Browser based applications limit direct manipulation (e.g., drag & drop)
        • Require Dynamic HTML, Java or Flash
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Direct Manipulation Interfaces
  • Advantages of direct manipulation
    • Continuous representation of the objects and actions of interest with meaningful visual metaphors
    • Physical actions or presses of labeled buttons, instead of complex syntax
    • Rapid, incremental, reversible actions whose effects on the objects of interest are visible immediately
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Direct Manipulation Interfaces
  • Advantages of direct manipulation
    • Design systems with the following benefits
      • Novices can learn basic functionality quickly
      • Experts can work rapidly to carry out a wide range of tasks, even defining new functions and features
      • Knowledgeable intermittent users can retain operational concepts
      • Error messages are rarely needed
      • Users can immediately see whether their actions are furthering their goals, and if the actions are counterproductive, they can change the direction of their activity
      • Users experience less anxiety because the interface is comprehensible and because actions are easily reversed
      • Users gain confidence and mastery because they are the initiators of action, they feel in control, and they predict the interface’s responses
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Direct Manipulation Interfaces
  • The OAI Model and Direct Manipulation
    • The object of interest is displayed so that interface actions are close to the high-level task domain
    • Little need for mental decomposition of tasks into multiple interface commands with complex syntactic forms (e.g., vi: go to line, go to word, go to character)
    • Each action produces a comprehensible result in the task domain that is visible in the interface immediately
    • The closeness of the task domain to the interface domain reduces operator problem-solving load and stress
    • Compared to textual descriptors, visual representations of objects may be more natural and closer to human innate capabilities
      • Action and visual skills emerged well before language in human evolution
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Direct Manipulation Interfaces
  • Visual Thinking and Icons
    • Semiotics – the study of signs and symbols
    • Icon – an image, picture or symbol representing a concept
      • In computer systems usually less than one inch square (64x64 pixels)
      • Smaller icons are often integrated with a window border or toolbar
    • Task dependency
      • When working on a visual task (e.g., painting program), icons may be useful
      • When working on a text-based task, it may be better to stay text based
    • Icons with words (or mouse-overs) are useful
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Direct Manipulation Interfaces
  • Icon related guidelines
    • Represent the object or action in a familiar and recognizable manner
    • Limit the number of different icons
    • Make the icon standout from its background
    • 3-d icons can be visually distracting
    • Ensure that a single selected icon is clearly visible when surrounded by unselected icons
    • Make each icon distinctive from every other icon
    • Ensure harmoniousness of each icon as a member of a family of icons
    • Design the movement animation (e.g., grayed-out ghost image on a drag)
    • Detail information
      • Larger shadowing for a larger file
      • Color to show the age of a document
      • Animation to show how much of a file has printed (document icon absorbed progressively into the printer icon)
    • Explore use of combination of icons
      • (E.g., drag a document to a printer icon)
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Direct Manipulation Interfaces
  • Direct Manipulation Programming
    • Example: programming a radio to a set of stations by pressing/holding a channel selection button
    • Phone Services
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Direct Manipulation Interfaces
  • Direct Manipulation Programming
    • Programming in the User Interface
      • Sufficient computational generality
        • Conditionals (if, then, else)
        • Iteration (repeat/while)
      • Access to appropriate data structures and operators
        • File structures for directories
        • Addition, subtraction, etc.
      • Ease in programming
        • By specification or by demonstration (Flash animation)
        • Argument passing
      • Simplicity in invocation and assignment of arguments
      • Low risk
        • High probability of bug free programs
        • Halt and resume
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Direct Manipulation Interfaces
  • Direct Manipulation Programming
    • Viscosity – the difficulty of making changes to a program
    • Progressive evaluation – the capacity for execution of partial programs
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Direct Manipulation Interfaces
  • 3-Dimensional Interfaces
    • Some applications are designed as 2-D to be simpler than real-world systems
      • Constrain movement
      • Limit interface actions
      • Ensure visibility of interface objects
    • Enhanced 3D may be better than 3D
      • Flying through objects
      • Multiple simultaneous views of objects
      • X-ray vision
      • Shrink/expand objects
      • Group/ungroup components
      • Going back in time
    • Less than successful 3D interfaces
      • Air-traffic control
      • Showing altitude by perspective drawing only adds clutter when compared to an overview from directly above

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hw-O4zX8qRY

direct manipulation interfaces39
Direct Manipulation Interfaces
  • 4-Dimensional Interfaces
  • 4-D Anyone?

Tesseract

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bIj0oW-tTF4&feature=fvwrel

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Direct Manipulation Interfaces
  • Second Life
    • Multi-user environment where users interact
    • Users can choose avatars (fantasy images, desirable characteristics)
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Direct Manipulation Interfaces
  • Relationship to:
    • Personality Theory
    • Social Psychology
    • Spatial Cognition
  • Applicable to business meetings, community discussion groups, political forums?
    • Blaxxun envision
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Direct Manipulation Interfaces
  • 3D Desktops and Workplaces
    • Microsoft’s Task Gallery
    • Intel’s Grand Canyon
    • Xerox PARC’s Information Visualizer
    • No successful products yet
direct manipulation interfaces43
Direct Manipulation Interfaces
  • Tips for effective 3D interfaces
    • Use occlusion, shadows, perspective and other 3D techniques carefully
    • Minimize the number of navigation steps for users to accomplish their tasks
    • Keep text readable (better rendering, good contrast with background, an no more than 30-degree tilt)
    • Avoid unnecessary visual clutter, distraction, contrast shifts and reflections
    • Simplify user movement (keep movements planar, avoid surprises like going through walls)
    • Organize groups of items in aligned structures to allow rapid visual search
    • Enable users to construct visual groups to support spatial recall (e.g., placing items in corners)
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Direct Manipulation Interfaces
  • Guidelines for inclusion of 3D features
    • Provide users overviews so they can see the big picture
    • Allow teleportation (rapid context shifts by selecting destination in an overview)
    • Offer x-ray vision
    • Provide history keeping (recording, undoing, replaying, editing)
    • Permit rich user actions on objects (save, copy, annotate, share, send)
    • Give users control over explanatory text (pop-up, floating, screen tips)
    • Offer tools to select, mark and measure
    • Implement dynamic queries to rapidly filter out unneeded items
    • Enable landmarks to show themselves even at a distance
    • Allow multiple coordinated views (users can be in more than one place at a time)
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Direct Manipulation Interfaces

Mahru Humanoid Robot Real-Time Teleoperation

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TJmQqC1nHTU&feature=fvwrel

  • Teleoperation
    • Derived from direct manipulation and process control
    • Physical processes taking place in a remote location
      • Clean-up in a nuclear reactor
    • Need adequate feedback in sufficient time to permit effective decision making
      • Manufacturing
      • Medicine (consultation, radiology)
      • Military operations (drones)
    • Home automation
      • Answering machines
      • Security systems
      • Energy control
      • Appliances
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Direct Manipulation Interfaces

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aFPQfhUArjI&feature=fvwrel

  • Design to accommodate teleoperation issues
    • Slow response times and time delays
      • Transmission delay (time for command to reach the microscope)
      • Operation delay (time until the microscope responds)
    • Incomplete feedback
      • The microscope can transmit its current position, but operates so slowly it cannot indicate the exact current position
    • Unanticipated interferences
      • The slide is accidentally moved by a person at the local site
    • May be better for the user to specify a destination (rather than a motion) and wait until the action is completed
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Direct Manipulation Interfaces
  • Telemedicine
    • Remote examination
    • Remote surgery
    • Telepathology
      • Magnification
      • Focus
      • Illumination
      • Position
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Direct Manipulation Interfaces
  • Virtual and Augmented Reality
    • “Being in” as opposed to “Looking at”
    • Architectural applications
      • Wall-sized image to give perspective
      • Animation to simulate movement (left to right)
      • Treadmill to simulate walking toward, walk through doors, stairs
      • Replace projector with a head-mounted display
    • Some applications are better when “looked at”
      • Air-traffic control
      • To surgeons want to “Be in” the patients body?
    • Training using virtual reality
      • Fifth Dimension Technologies www.5DT.com
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Direct Manipulation Interfaces
  • Virtual and Augmented Reality
    • The CAVE (National Center for Supercomputing Applications)
    • An immersive virtual reality facility designed for the exploration of and interaction with spatially engaging environments.
    • The stereoscopic capabilities, coupled with its uniquely immersive design, enable scientists and researchers to interact with their data
      • An atmospheric scientist can actually "climb inside" of a hurricane and visualize its complex and chaotic elements from any angle or visual perspective
      • A biological researcher, examining a tightly coiled strand of DNA, can virtually "unravel" this strand and manipulate it in an environment that preserves the critical depth information of the data.
      • Teach a child to cross a street
        • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C5jSSKwBbVM
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Direct Manipulation Interfaces
  • Artificial Reality
    • VideoPlace – Myron Krueger
      • Surround the user with an artificial reality which responded to their movements and actions.
      • The users were able to visually see the results of their actions on screen, through the use of colored silhouettes.
      • The users had a sense of presence while interacting with onscreen objects and other users.
      • The sense of presence was enough that users pulled away when their silhouettes intersected with those of other users.

eHarmony 2.0?

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0MsySesdisE

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Direct Manipulation Interfaces
  • Applications of virtual environments
    • Phobia treatment
      • Acrophobia
    • Pain Control
      • Immersive environments provide distractions for patients
    • Interior Design
      • OAI model
        • Click, drag, enlarge objects
        • Room painting tool

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jNIqyyypojg

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Direct Manipulation Interfaces
  • Augmented Reality
    • See the real world with an overlay of additional information
      • See wires or plumbing behind walls
      • Tourist glasses – label buildings in a historic town
      • Molecular biology

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZczX6qleV4Q

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Direct Manipulation Interfaces
  • Virtual environments dependent on integration of multiple technologies
    • Visual Display
      • Normal Display
        • 12 to 17 inches diagonally at a normal viewing distance of 70 cm subtends a visual angle of about 5-degrees
      • Large Screen
        • 17 to 30 inches can cover 20 to 30-degrees
      • Head Mounted Displays
        • 100 degrees horizontally and 60-degrees vertically
        • Head motion produces new images so users perceive 360-degrees
        • Displays must approach 100-millisecond delay in presenting images to approach real time
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Direct Manipulation Interfaces
  • Virtual environments dependent on integration of multiple technologies
    • Head-position sensing
      • Head-mounted displays can provide differing views depending on head position
    • Hand-position sensing
      • DataGlove
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Direct Manipulation Interfaces
  • Virtual environments dependent on integration of multiple technologies
    • Force feedback and haptics
      • Hand-operated remote-control devices for performing chemistry experiments or for handling nuclear materials
      • Gives users a sense of grasp
    • Sound input and output
      • Training of Army tank crews while using realistic sounds of battle resulted in:
        • Elevated heart rates, more rapid breathing, and increased perspiration
      • Speech recognition for initiating actions and making menu selection
        • Keyboard and mouse use is restricted
    • Other sensations
      • Tilting and vibration of flight simulators
    • Collaborative and competitive virtual environments
      • Two people at remote sites working together while seeing each others actions and the object of interest
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Direct Manipulation Interfaces
  • Definition, benefits, and drawbacks of direct manipulation
    • Definition
      • Visual representation (metaphor) of the “world of action”
      • Objects are always shown
      • Rapid, incremental, and reversible actions
      • Replacement of typing with pointing/selecting
      • Immediate visibility of results of actions
    • Benefits over commands
      • Less syntax reduces error rates
      • Errors are more preventable
      • Faster learning and higher retention
      • Encourages exploration
direct manipulation interfaces57
Direct Manipulation Interfaces
  • Definition, benefits, and drawbacks of direct manipulation
    • Concerns
      • Increased system resources (possibly)
      • Some actions may be cumbersome (e.g., form fillin forcing use of mouse)
      • History and other tracing may be difficult
      • Visually impaired users may have more difficulty
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Direct Manipulation Interfaces
  • Piaget’s Four Stages of Development
    • Sensorimotor (birth to 2 years)
    • Preoperational (2 to 7 years)
    • Concrete operational (7 to 11 years)
      • Physical actions on an object are comprehensible
      • Children acquire the concept of conservation or invariance
      • Direct manipulation brings activity to this stage
    • Formal operational (begins at 11 years)
      • Symbol manipulation to represent actions on objects
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