primary care for transgender people l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
PRIMARY CARE FOR TRANSGENDER PEOPLE PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
PRIMARY CARE FOR TRANSGENDER PEOPLE

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 109

PRIMARY CARE FOR TRANSGENDER PEOPLE - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 479 Views
  • Uploaded on

PRIMARY CARE FOR TRANSGENDER PEOPLE. Lori Kohler, MD Associate Clinical Professor Department of Family and Community Medicine University of California, San Francisco. PRIMARY CARE FOR TRANSGENDER PEOPLE. Clinical Background Who is Transgender Barriers to Care Transgender People and HIV

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PRIMARY CARE FOR TRANSGENDER PEOPLE


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
    Presentation Transcript
    1. PRIMARY CARE FOR TRANSGENDER PEOPLE Lori Kohler, MD Associate Clinical Professor Department of Family and Community Medicine University of California, San Francisco

    2. PRIMARY CARE FOR TRANSGENDER PEOPLE • Clinical Background • Who is Transgender • Barriers to Care • Transgender People and HIV • Hormone Treatment and Management • Surgical Options and Post-op care • Evidence? • Transgender care in prison

    3. Clinical Experience • Tom Waddell Health Center Transgender Team • Family Health Center • Phone and e-mail Consultation • California Medical Facility- Department of Corrections

    4. TRANSGENDER refers to a person who is born with the genetic traits of one gender but the internalized identity of another gender The term transgender may not be universally accepted. Multiple terms exist that vary based on culture, age, class

    5. The goal of treatment for transgender people is to improve their quality of life by facilitating their transition to a physical state that more closely represents their sense of themselves

    6. Christine Jorgensen

    7. Old Prevalence Estimates Netherlands: • 1 in 11,900 males(MTF) • 1 in 30,400 females(FTM) United States: • 30-40,000 postoperative MTF

    8. What is the Diagnosis? • DSM-IV: Gender Identity Disorder • ICD-9: Gender Disorder, NOS Hypogonadism Endocrine Disorder, NOS

    9. DSM-IV 302.85 Gender Identity Disorder • A strong and persistent cross-gender identification • Manifested by symptoms such as the desire to be and be treated as the other sex, frequent passing as the other sex, the conviction that he or she has the typical feelings and reactions of the other sex • Persistent discomfort with his or her sex or sense of inappropriateness in the gender role

    10. DSM-IV Gender Identity Disorder (cont) • The disturbance is not concurrent with a physical intersex condition • The disturbance causes clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning

    11. Transgenderism • Is not a mental illness • Cannot be objectively proven or confirmed

    12. Male Female GENDER Straight Lesbian/Gay SEXUAL ORIENTATION Male Female GENDER IDENTITY Dominant Submissive SEXUAL IDENTITY Masculine Feminine AESTHETIC Assertive Passive SOCIAL CONDUCT Unbridled Monogamous SEXUAL ACTIVITY

    13. Barriers to Medical Care for Transgender People • Geographic Isolation • Social Isolation • Fear of Exposure/Avoidance • Denial of Insurance Coverage • Stigma of Gender Clinics • Lack of Clinical Research/Medical Literature

    14. . Provider ignorance limits access to care

    15. Regardless of their socioeconomic status all transgender people are medically underserved

    16. The Number of Transgender People in Urban Areas is Increasing Due to: • natural migration from smaller communities • earlier awareness and self-identity as transgender

    17. Urban Transgender Women Studies in several large cities have demonstrated that transgender women are at especially high risk for: • Poverty • HIV disease • Addiction • Incarceration

    18. Limited access to Medical Care for Transgender People

    19. No Clinical Research No Transgender Education in Medical Training Limited access to Medical Care for Transgender People

    20. No Clinical Research No Transgender Education in Medical Training TRANSPHOBIA Limited access to Medical Care for Transgender People

    21. No Clinical Research No Transgender Education in Medical Training TRANSPHOBIA No Health Insurance Coverage Limited access to Medical Care for Transgender People No Legal Protection Employment Discrimination Poverty Lack of Education

    22. No Clinical Research No Transgender Education in Medical Training TRANSPHOBIA No Health Insurance Coverage No Prevention Efforts Limited access to Medical Care for Transgender People No Legal Protection No Targeted Programs For Transgender People Mental health Substance abuse Employment Discrimination Poverty Lack of Education

    23. No Clinical Research No Transgender Education in Medical Training TRANSPHOBIA No Health Insurance Coverage No Prevention Efforts Limited access to Medical Care for Transgender People No Legal Protection No Targeted Programs For Transgender People Mental health Substance abuse Employment Discrimination SOCIAL MARGINALIZATION Poverty Low Self Esteem Lack of Education

    24. No Clinical Research No Transgender Education in Medical Training TRANSPHOBIA No Health Insurance Coverage No Prevention Efforts Limited access to Medical Care for Transgender People No Legal Protection No Targeted Programs For Transgender People Mental health Substance abuse Employment Discrimination SOCIAL MARGINALIZATION Poverty Low Self Esteem HIV Risk Behavior Lack of Education

    25. LOW SELF ESTEEM HIV RISK BEHAVIOR Sex work Drug use Unprotected sex Underground hormones Sex for hormones Silicone injections Needle sharing Abuse by medical providers

    26. Why Sex work? • Survival • Access to gainful employment • Reinforcement of femininity and attractiveness

    27. LOW SELF ESTEEM HIV RISK BEHAVIOR Sex work Drug use Unprotected sex Underground hormones Sex for hormones Silicone injections Needle sharing Abuse by medical providers SOCIAL MARGINALIZATION LOW SELF ESTEEM

    28. LOW SELF ESTEEM HIV RISK BEHAVIOR Sex work Drug use Unprotected sex Underground hormones Sex for hormones Silicone injections Needle sharing Abuse by medical providers INCARCERATION SOCIAL MARGINALIZATION LOW SELF ESTEEM

    29. LOW SELF ESTEEM LIMITED ACCESS TO MEDICAL CARE HIV RISK BEHAVIOR Sex work Drug use Unprotected sex Underground hormones Sex for hormones Silicone injections Needle sharing Abuse by medical providers INCARCERATION SOCIAL MARGINALIZATION LOW SELF ESTEEM

    30. No Clinical Research No Transgender Education in Medical Training TRANSPHOBIA No Health Insurance Coverage No Prevention Efforts Limited access to Medical Care for Transgender People No Legal Protection No Targeted Programs For Transgender People Mental health Substance abuse Employment Discrimination SOCIAL MARGINALIZATION Poverty Low Self Esteem HIV Risk Behavior Lack of Education

    31. Clinical Research Transgender Education in Medical Training TRANSGENDER Awareness Health Insurance Coverage Prevention Efforts Access to Medical Care for Transgender People Legal Protection Targeted Programs For Transgender People Mental health Substance abuse Employment SOCIAL INCLUSION Self-sufficiency Self Esteem HIV Risk Behavior Education

    32. SELF ESTEEM ACCESS TO MEDICAL CARE HIV RISK BEHAVIOR Sex Work Drug use Unprotected sex Underground hormones Sex for hormones Silicone injections Needle sharing Abuse by medical providers INCARCERATION SOCIAL INCLUSION SELF ESTEEM

    33. Access to Cross-Gender Hormones can: • Improve adherence to treatment of chronic illness • Increase opportunities for preventive health care • Lead to social change

    34. Harry Benjamin International Gender Dysphoria Association (HBIGDA)Standards of Care for Gender Identity Disorders – 2001 Eligibility Criteria for Hormone Therapy 1.  18 years or older 2. Knowledge of social and medical risks and benefits of hormones 3. Either A. Documented real life experience for at least 3 months OR B. Psychotherapy for at least 3 months

    35. HBIGDA Real Life Experience Employment, student, volunteer New legal gender-appropriate first name Documentation that persons other than the therapist know the patient in their new gender role

    36. Readiness Criteria for Hormone Therapy-HBIGDA 2001 • Real life experience or psychotherapy further consolidate gender identity • Progress has been made toward emotional well being and mental health • Hormones are likely to be taken in a responsible manner

    37. Initial Visits • Review history of gender experience • Document prior hormone use • Obtain sexual history • Order screening laboratory studies • Review patient goals

    38. Initial Visits • Address safety concerns • Assess social support system • Assess readiness for gender transition • Review risks and benefits of hormone therapy • Obtain informed consent • Provide referrals • Screening labs

    39. Physical Exam • Assess patient comfort with P.E. • Problem oriented exam only • Avoid satisfying your curiosity

    40. Male to Female Treatment Options • No hormones • Estrogens • Antiandrogen • Progesterone Not usually recommended except for weight maintenance

    41. Estrogen • Premarin 1.25-10mg po qd or divided as bid • Ethinyl Estradiol (Estinyl) 0.1-1.0 mg po qd • Estradiol Patch 0.1-0.3mg q3-7 days • Estradiol Valerate injection 20-60mg IM q2wks

    42. Transgender Hormone Therapy • Heredity limits the tissue response to hormones • More is not always better

    43. Estrogen Treatment May Lead To • Breast Development • Redistribution of body fat • Softening of skin • Emotional changes • Loss of erections • Testicular atrophy • Decreased upper body strength • Slowing of scalp hair loss

    44. Risks of Estrogen Therapy • Venous thrombosis/emboli (po) • Weight gain • Decreased libido • Hypertriglyceridemia (po) • Elevated blood pressure • Decreased glucose tolerance • Gallbladder disease • Benign pituitary prolactinoma (rare) • Breast cancer(?)

    45. Spironolactone • 50-150 mg po bid

    46. Spironolactone May Lead To • Modest breast development • Softening of facial and body hair