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Dr. Tofail Md. Alamgir Azad, Project Director, DSK-Shiree Project Md. Abdul Baten, Coordinator- Research, DSK-Shiree Pro PowerPoint Presentation
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Dr. Tofail Md. Alamgir Azad, Project Director, DSK-Shiree Project Md. Abdul Baten, Coordinator- Research, DSK-Shiree Project Dushtha Shasthya Kendra (DSK) April 22, 2012. Lessons from DSK-Shiree Project. Targeting of Extreme Poor in the Slums of Dhaka City.

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slide1

Dr. Tofail Md. Alamgir Azad, Project Director, DSK-Shiree Project

Md. Abdul Baten, Coordinator- Research, DSK-Shiree Project

DushthaShasthya Kendra (DSK)

April 22, 2012

Lessons from DSK-Shiree Project

Targeting of Extreme Poor

in the Slums of Dhaka City

Moving from Extreme Poverty through Economic Empowerment

background
Background
  • Urban poverty in one of the big challenges to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)
  • 5 million people are living at the 4,966 slums of Dhaka city and they are the 40% of the total population of the city
  • 300,000 to 400,000 new migrants are coming at Dhaka city in every year
  • Every ten year population is becoming double in Dhaka city
  • A large portions are coming from disaster prone areas including Monga affected, Coastal, Haor, CHT & many others pockets
  • Large portions of them are extreme poor
  • Contributing in different important sectors- such as garments, textiles, leather and other small industries, transportation, land development, construction, domestic helps, businesses, waste management and many other informal
  • But they are the most neglected communities to the society and the state
slide3

Project Goal and Purpose

Goal

To Contribute Government of Bangladesh MDG targets 1 and 2 on income poverty and hunger achieved by 2015

Purpose

10,000 households in urban slums of Dhaka city have lifted themselves out of extreme poverty by 2012

major outputs
Major Outputs
  • 25,000 Extreme poor women are supported through accumulation of physical and financial capital
  • Organize and collective effort enhanced extreme poor HHs through formation and strengthening of 250 CBOs
  • Increased access to water, sanitation, and health services
  • Enhanced technical and business capabilities of 25,000 extreme poor households
why targeting is an issues
Why targeting is an issues???
  • Up to late nineties, most of the cases, actual extreme poor were not got much attention from many of the development initiatives;
  • As all we know that the one of the most effective project was TUP of BRAC through asset transfer to Extreme poor;
  • Real change from extreme poverty, special attention is required;
  • So targeting of real extreme poor is needed extra attention and precautions;
who are the extreme poor
Who are the extreme poor

Economic indicator from World Bank:

  • Income less than U$ 1.25 per capita per day

Nutritional indicator:

  • Calorie intake per capita per day which may be another indicators which is not easy to apply at the field;
  • So some operational definitions and fixing up some useable indications are required which may adapted based on the local situations;
slide9

Selection for Beneficiaries Households

Essential Criteria

Income level is <BDT 5,000/month/HH (3,000 was in 1st year/ 2009 and 4,500 was in 2nd year/2010-11)

No access to Micro-Finance Institutions

Supplementary major Criteria

Occupations- House maid, Day labor, Cobbler, Road side Barber , Push cart driver, Old age women beggar, disabled male beggar and other those are not able to earn

Widow/ divorced/separated and abandoned women as head of household

One room for the family: House rent is not more than 2,000 taka (1,000 was in 2009 and 1,500 was in 2010-11)

Household include disable or economically inactive member

Disable beggar (Male/ female)

slide10

Targeting of Real Extreme Poor

  • Targeting from the bottom 10% of poorest people following the agreed specific criteria including some essential and supplementary criteria
  • Maintaining the proper follow up mechanisms at every steps
  • Community participation using PRA tools such as Social mapping, Wealth ranking (have limitation in urban)
  • Door to door visit for the survey to check real situation
  • Family approach should be consider during selection of interventions/ IGA plan
  • Need to avoid the targeting drip/ mis-targeting
slide12

SWOT analysis on targeting

  • Strength:
  • DSK has very well reputation and acceptance to the slum dwellers as they are providing different interventions since last 23 years;
  • Since earlier a number of CBOs are active especially for WASAN and health related interventions
  • A group of committed staff members
  • Slum dweller are stay in cluster basis so geographically we can reach within short time;
  • Project have provided a very attractive amount of supports (up to taka 30,000 for a households)
  • Opportunities:
  • DSK have opportunities with integration with other core program such as WATSAN and health interventions
  • Slum dweller have many options of IGAs as they are staying within Dhaka city and access in large market
slide13

SWOT analysis

  • Weakness:
  • Slum people has very week ties within themselves as they have come from different corner of the country;
  • Some people have hiding tendency of information at primary stage;
  • Threats:
  • Evictions
  • Fire explorations
  • Internal and external migration
slide14

Challenges in targeting

  • Targeting vs Graduation !!!!
  • Always have to attention to avoid the targeting drips
  • Challenging to use PRA tools such as wealth ranking
  • Most of the adult area have no formal education
  • Selection of IGAs for disable, elderly people, fully women headed family, and beggars
slide15

Advantages

  • Slum dwellers are staying within a large market in Dhaka city
  • Business and many other income opportunities are there
  • DSK has long experience and excellent rapports with slum dwellers
slide16

Allocated of Resources

  • Target- 25, 000 BHHs
    • Phase I (Apr’09-Mar’12)- 10,00 (2000+5000+3000)
    • Phase II (Apr’12-Mar’15)- 15,000 (15,000 with the year 2012)
  • Total Human Resource
    • Phase I- Staff members- 107 and CBO Cadres- 18
    • Phase II- Staff members- 126 and CBO Cadres- 17
  • Budgets-
    • Phase I- BDT 376,623,058 (376.62 million)- unspent BDT 209,046,343
    • Phase II- BDT 339,046,343 (339.05 million)
  • Allocations per HH
    • Phase I- BDT 28,228
    • Phase II- BDT 21,000+
  • Cost of ratio
    • Phase I- Beneficiary- 80% and Management- 20%
    • Phase II- Beneficiary- 70% and Management- 30%
slide17

Recommendations

  • Operational criteria should be in place at the beginning
  • All steps should be followed properly
  • Since the beginning of targeting cross checking and verification mechanisms must be followed as first phase;
slide18

Findings from Quarterly Survey (CMS-3) conducted by Shiree

  • Quarterly surveys are conducted by Shiree/ Cambridge University Team
  • Pre-coded well structured questionnaires
  • Sample size was 64 BHHs selected for 1st year (2009) households (32 from Korail & 32 from Kamrangirchar) and another 64 households were added from 2nd year (2010) households
  • Multistage cluster sampling method was used
slide19

Timeline of previous surveys

  • Baseline- October 2009 (63 households)
  • Round 1- March 2010 (separate 64 households)
  • Round 2- July 2010 (same 63 households of round 1)
  • Round 3- November 2010 (same 50 households of round 1)
  • Round 4- March 2011- 121 (57+64)- 57 was same as households of round 1 (longitudinal/ panel, and new 64/ 57 households was sampled from the households selected in 2nd year (2010)
slide24

Let's Start Eliminate Poverty Together!

For A Bright Future of Extreme poor!!

Thanks for being with us!!

`yt¯’ ¯^v¯’¨ †K›`ª (DSK)