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Routing protocols in Mobile Ad Hoc Network. UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING BURLA, SAMBALPUR. Types of Wireless Networks. Infrastructure based(Cellular Network). Infrastructureless Network ( Mobile Ad hoc NETwork) (MANET). Characteristics of an Ad-hoc network.

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Routing protocols in Mobile Ad Hoc Network

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    1. Routing protocols in Mobile Ad Hoc Network UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING BURLA, SAMBALPUR

    2. Types of Wireless Networks • Infrastructure based(Cellular Network). • InfrastructurelessNetwork(Mobile Ad hoc NETwork) (MANET).

    3. Characteristics of an Ad-hoc network • Collection of mobile nodes forming a temporary network • Network topology changes frequently and unpredictably • No centralized administration or standard support services • Host is also function as router

    4. Why is Routing Different in Ad Hoc ??? • Host mobility • Dynamic topology • link failure/repair due to mobility • Distributed Environment • Bandwidth constrained • Energy constrained

    5. Categorization of Ad-Hoc Routing Protocols

    6. Table Driven Routing Protocol • Proactive. • Each node maintains one or more tables containing routing information to every other node in the network. • Tables need to be consistent and up-to-date view of the network. • Updates propagate through the network

    7. Source Initiated On demand routing protocol • Reactive. • on-demand style: create routes only when it is desired by the source node • When a node requires a route to a destination, it initiates a route discovery process • Route is maintained until destination becomes unreachable, or source no longer is interested in destination.

    8. Table Driven Routing Protocol

    9. Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector Protocol (DSDV) • Basic Routing Protocol • Based on Bellman ford routing algorithm with some improvement • Each node maintains a list of all destinations and number of hops to each destination. • Each entry is marked with a sequence number. • Periodically send table to all neighbors to maintain topology • Two ways to update neighbors: • Full dump • Incremental update

    10. Example of DSDV A’s Routing Table Before Change A’s Routing Table After Change

    11. Clusterhead Gateway Switch Routing (CGSR) • Similar to DSDV • Based on concept of clusters and cluster heads • Routing is done via the cluster heads and gateways • A routing table among cluster heads are maintained

    12. Example of CGSR • Data forwarding steps: • from cluster head to cluster head • in a hierarchical manner • then from cluster head to cluster members • between two cluster heads, gateways are used to forward the packets

    13. Source Initiated On demand routing protocol

    14. Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector Routing(AODV) • Pure on-demand protocol • Node does not need to maintain knowledge of another node unless it communicates with it • AODV includes route discovery and route maintenance. • AODV minimizes the number of broadcasts by creating routes on-demand • AODV uses only symmetric links because the route reply packet follows the reverse path of route request packet • AODV uses hello messages to know its neighbors and to ensure symmetric links

    15. Path discovery • In the path discovery (RREQ) phase, source broadcasts RREQ message. • Intermediate nodes record in their route tables the address of neighbor from which RREQ is received to establish a reverse path. • When RREQ reaches destination or an intermediate node responds by unicasting a route reply (RREP) back to neighbor.

    16. Path maintenance • If source node moves, reestablish the path. • If destination or intermediate node moves, send link failure notification message to each of its active upstream. • Then reinitiate path discovery .

    17. Dynamic Source Routing Protocol (DSR) • on-demand • A node maintains route cache containing the routes it knows • Two main phases • Route discovery • Route maintenance • Basic Operation is similar to AODV. • Main difference • To use routing cache for link failure. • When route discovery phase, node send route request message with its own address.

    18. Example of DSR

    19. Hybrid Routing Protocols

    20. Zone Routing Protocol • Hybrid of table-driven and on-demand!! • From each node, there is a concept of “zone”. • Within each zone, the routing is performed in a table-driven manner (proactive). • However, a node does not try to keep global routing information. • For inter-zone routing, on-demand routing is used.

    21. Example of ZPR • Three types of nodes: • Border Nodes • Peripherals Nodes • Interior Nodes

    22. Comparison

    23. References • Elizabeth M. Royer, Chai-Keong Toh, A Review of Current Routing Protocols for Ad Hoc Mobile Wireless Networks,Proc. IEEE,1999. • David B. Johnson, " Routing in Ad hoc Networks of Mobile Hosts", Proc IEEE Workshop on Mobile Computing Systems and Applications. • Nicklas Beijar “Zone Routing Protocol“. • • • issues/issue200407/00001326001.html •

    24. THANKYOU ?