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Released Test I. Biology Explanation for answers. Question 1 . B You must know the tests for lipids and starches Starch: iodine goes from brown to black Fats (lipids): brown paper goes from brown to clear (fat stain). Question 2. D

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Released Test I

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    1. Released Test I Biology Explanation for answers

    2. Question 1 • B • You must know the tests for lipids and starches • Starch: iodine goes from brown to black • Fats (lipids): brown paper goes from brown to clear (fat stain)

    3. Question 2 • D • Osmosis: movement of water from high concentration to low concentration • More water in gums than in mouth – water leaves gums and gums are less swollen

    4. Question 3 • B • You must be able to pick out the nucleus, mitochondria, and ribosome and tell the function of each • Nucleus: genetic material stored here • Mitochondria: energy produced here • Ribosome: proteins created here • Plant cells have cell walls and chloroplasts

    5. Question 4 • D • Aerobic respiration is when there is oxygen present – creates 38 ATP • All animals and plants will undergo aerobic respiration • Yeast cells will undergo anaerobic (no oxygen) respiration or fermentation and produce alcohol, only 2 ATP produced • Animal cells will undergo lactic acid fermentation without oxygen, only 2 ATP produced

    6. Question 5 • A • Cells in plants that undergo rapid mitosis include the root tips and the apical meristem – top of plant

    7. Question 6 • D • Homologous structures are structures that have similar functions and arise from common ancestor: arm bones of bats, whales, frogs and humans • Analogous structures are structures that have similar functions but arose from uncommon ancestors: wings of bat and butterfly

    8. Question 7 • C • Be able to read the mRNA table • You will be required to form proteins (amino acids) from a sequence of DNA • Remember in DNA: A-T and C-G • Remember in RNA: A-U and C-G • Transcription: DNA to RNA • Translation: RNA to protein

    9. D Blood typing AB blood type can only give an A or a B allele O blood type can only give an O and it is recessive to A or to B Homozygous A blood type can only give an A allele Heterozygous A blood type can give an A or an O allele. Homozygous B blood type can only give a B allele Heterozygous B blood type can give a B or an O allele. Do a punnet square! Question 8

    10. Question 9 • B • What you are looking at is gel electrophoresis, a method to separate DNA • This same question can be used to determine who the bad guy is! • Compare bands

    11. Question 10 • A • Know Mendel’s law of independent assortment and law of segregation

    12. Question 11 • A • The key to this problem is reading the problem closely • One of the parents has PKU which is recessive, not sex-linked, pp • The other parent does not have the disease, PP • The children would be carriers only

    13. Question 12 • C • Radiation can cause cancer • Malaria is caused by a parasite • Asthma is either a hereditary disease or caused by the environment • Polio is a disease caused by a virus

    14. Question 13 • D • Humans are used as the vector when the sporozoites (1n) combine to form 2n spores. • The spores are then sucked up by another mosquito and then they undergo meiosis to form the 1n stage. • Cycle repeats itself

    15. Question 14 • A • Gymnosperms produce seeds, cones and have vascular tissue (xylem and phloem) • Angiosperms produce seeds and flowers and have vascular tissue (xylem and phloem) (An easy way to remember is the name Angio… sounds like Angie and girls like flowers!)

    16. C Habituation - repeated exposure to a stimulus leads to decreased responding Imprinting - learning occurring at a particular age or a particular life stage, rapid, duck babies will follow any animal that moves after they are born Conditioning - occurs through associations between an environmental stimulus and a naturally occurring stimulus. (Pavlov’s dogs) Trial and error - general method of problem solving, fixing things, or for obtaining knowledge Question 15

    17. Question 16 • C • Xylem: vascular tissue that transports water and nutrients from the roots to the rest of the plant • Phloem: vascular tissue that transports sugars from the leaves to the rest of the plant

    18. Question 17 • B • If plants are grown in an area with limited sunlight such as in the tropical rainforest, the plants would adapt by producing large leaves • If plants are grown in areas with limited water, the plants adapt by either creating water storage areas or by having extremely long roots.

    19. Question 18 • D • When looking at food webs, the arrows show where food comes from and where it goes. • In this example, crickets feed frogs and mice feed snakes and the hawk • Cricket Frog

    20. Question 19 • B • Symbiotic relationships • Mutualism: both animals benefit; cleaner fish and sharks • Commensalism: one animal benefits and one is neither helped nor harmed; cow birds eating the bugs that cows stir up • Parasitism: one animal is hurt and one animal benefits: ticks and dogs

    21. Question 20 • A • Ozone layer is destroyed by chlorofluorocarbons • When the ozone layer is destroyed, more UV rays enter our atmosphere and will cause more cancer

    22. Question 21 • C • Organic compounds • Lipids: glycerol backbone, three fatty acids; part of cell membrane • Carbohydrate: 1 Carbon to 2 Hydrogen to 1 oxygen; sugars – glucose; cellulose in cell walls, glycogen – sugar storage in animals, starch - sugar storage in plants • Nucleic acids: N, O, C, P; DNA and RNA • Amino acids: N, O, C, P, S: proteins

    23. Question 22 • C • Ribosomes create proteins, so if ribosomes are destroyed – there will be no more protein production • Mitochondria creates energy – cellular respiration • Chloroplasts – found in plants - photosynthesis

    24. Cellular respiration and photosynthesis

    25. Photosynthesis

    26. Cellular Respiration

    27. Question 23 • D • Osmosis is movement of water only • Water will move from high concentration to low concentration

    28. Question 24 • A • Enzyme-substrate complex, the enzyme does not go away • The substrate will change

    29. Question 25 • B • When any cell produces Carbon dioxide and water, the cell is undergoing cellular respiration and is aerobic • When any cell produces ethyl alcohol and Carbon dioxide, the cell is undergoing fermentation and is anaerobic • When any cell produces Oxygen and Glucose, the cell is undergoing photosynthesis

    30. Question 26 • B • When a homozygous recessive is crossed with a heterozygote, the outcome is always 1:1 or 50% to 50%

    31. Question 27 • A • Sexual reproduction has an advantage over asexual reproduction due to the increased variation • Asexual reproduction does not add any variation to the organisms

    32. Question 28 • A • Be able to create amino acids from DNA • Be able to determine if any changes will occur if any part of the DNA is changed

    33. Question 29 • C • Genetically engineered bacteria is used to create insulin as well as other substances for humans and animals

    34. Question 30 • B • The first organisms on earth were prokaryotic and anaerobic • Eukaryotic organisms arose from prokaryotic organisms • Aerobic organisms only developed after oxygen was found in the atmosphere • Oxygen was created by photosynthetic organisms

    35. Question 31 • D • When looking at pedigrees, know the following • Affected female: XhXh • Affected male: XhY • Normal male: XHY • Normal female: XHXH • Carrier female: XHXh

    36. Pedigree • In order for persons 1 and 2 to have an affected male (6) the mom (2) had to be a carrier • 7 and 8 are also carriers • Do punnet squares to check

    37. Question 32 • A • Learned behavior must be learned! What a concept!! • Usually animals will learn from their moms • Not to be confused with instinct – these behaviors are inborn such as building a nest

    38. Question 33 • D • Animals that absorb oxygen through the skin and/or release waste through the skin need to have a large surface area in order to absorb as much oxygen as needed

    39. Question 34 • B • Mammals have internal fertilization and internal development • Amphibians (for example, frogs) have external fertilization and external development • Birds have internal fertilization and external development (eggs)

    40. Question 35 • D • The original classification included just plants and animals • Now we have 6 kingdoms:

    41. 6 kingdoms

    42. Question 36 • C • B-cells produce antibodies • T-cells are the first line of defense – white blood cells • When you are exposed to an antigen, (bad thing) your body will produce antibodies so if you are exposed to the same antigen, you will not get sick

    43. Question 37 • B • The main function of leaves is to absorb light to produce glucose and oxygen in photosynthesis

    44. Question 38 • A • When looking at a ecological pyramid, the producers (plants) are always on the bottom • Herbivores eat the producers • Carnivores eat the herbivores • Only 10% of energy is moved from level to level, 90% is lost • If the producers increase in an ecosystem, it is most likely because the herbivores have gone away!

    45. Question 39 • D • You need to know that acids range from 0 – 6.9 on the pH scale. • You need to know that bases range from 7.1 to 14 on the pH scale. • You need to know that 7 is neutral on the pH scale

    46. Question 40 • C • See the next few slides • Exponential growth: when there is no lack of resources – humans have this type of growth pattern • Carrying capacity: when there is a lack of resources – the organisms will continue to grow until the resources are gone. Some animals will die and finally the resources are enough for all animals.

    47. Exponential growth

    48. Carrying capacity graph