First Aid Day VII Objectives. The Student will be able to assess and respond to Bites and Stings The Student will be able to assess and respond to a Heart Attack The Student will be able to assess and respond to Stroke The Student will be able to assess and respond to Asthma Attacks
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First Aid Day VII Objectives • The Student will be able to assess and respond to Bites and Stings • The Student will be able to assess and respond to a Heart Attack • The Student will be able to assess and respond to Stroke • The Student will be able to assess and respond to Asthma Attacks • The Student will be able to assess and respond to Hyperventilation • The Student will be able to assess and respond to Fainting and Seizures • The Student will be able to assess and respond to Diabetic Emergencies • The Student will be able to assess and respond to emergencies during Pregnancy SOLs: 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.3c, 9.3d, 9.3e, 9.4a, 9.4b, 9.5a, 9.5c,9.5d, 9.5e
BITES AND STINGS • Overview • Not usually life-threatening but can be a source of disease transmission and infection • Examples of Bites and Stings • Human and Animal Bites • Snake Bites • Insect Stings • Spider Bites and Scorpion Stings • Embedded Ticks
Human and Animal Bites (COPY) RESPOND: • Control Bleeding • Clean injury with soap and water • Seek medical attention for cleaning and vaccination
Snake Bites (COPY) • Poisonous Snakes in the US • Pit Vipers in VA • Copperheads • Rattlesnakes • Water Moccasin (cottonmouth) • Coral Snakes
Assess: Snake Bites(COPY) • Assess within 6 hours • Localized pain/burning • Swelling • Nausea • Sweating • Weakness
Respond: Snake Bites (COPY) • Monitor and Care • Get victim away from snake and keep them quiet and calm • Clean injury • Clean bitten area and bandage as you would a minor wound • Stabilize Injury • Stabilize the bitten area as you would a fracture • MINIMIZE MOVEMENT!!!!
Insect Stings(COPY) • Signs of stings • Localized pain • Itching • Swelling • Examples of stinging insects • Honeybee • Hornet • Yellow-jacket • Fire ant • Wasps
Respond: Insect Stings (COPY) • Clean injury: • Remove stinger and venom sac by scraping with a firm object and wash area with soap and water • Cool area: • Apply ice to slow absorption rate, relieve pain, and reduce swelling • Assist with Medication: • Hydrocortisone, pain medication or antihistamine, epinephrine if prescribed • Monitor for at least 30 minutes and activate EMS if a severe allergic reaction develops
Spiders and Scorpions(COPY) • Types of Poisonous spiders in the US • Brown Recluse • Black Widow • Tarantula • Signs and Symptoms • Itching and swelling • Localized pain • Possible nausea, vomiting, headache, or fever
Respond: Spiders and Scorpions (COPY) • Clean Injury • Soap and water • Rubbing alcohol • Cool Area • Apply ice • Monitor and Care • Seek medical attention if necessary
Embedded Ticks(COPY) • No initial pain • Varies from small bump to extensive swelling • Fever, chills, or rashes may develop (Lyme Disease)
Respond: Embedded Ticks (COPY) • Remove Tick and Clean Injury • Use tweezers to lift the tick straight off (close to skin) • Wash area with soap and water • Cool Area • Apply ice • Monitor and Care • Calamine lotion to relieve itching • Monitor victim for rashes, fever, muscle aches, and leg weakness for a month
SUDDEN ILLNESS(COPY) • Overview • Apparent (illness) weakness that occurs without warning. Can be immediately life-threatening • Examples of Sudden Illness • Heart Attack • Stroke • Asthma Attack • Hyperventilation • Fainting and Seizures • Diabetic Emergency
Heart Attack (COPY) • Blood flow is interrupted and heart tissue begins to die
Assess: Heart Attack (COPY) • Persistent chest pain lasting more than 3 to 5 minutes • Chest pain that travels to the neck, jaw, or down the (left) arm • Nausea, dizziness, or extreme fatigue or weakness • Shortness of breath or trouble breathing • Sweating or cold sweat without fever • Angina happens when the heart muscle does not get as much blood (oxygen) as it needs
Respond: Heart Attack (COPY) • Call EMS • Help victim rest in a comfortable position and continue to monitor carefully • Provide 1 adult aspirin or 2-4 children’s chewable aspirin if possible • Assist with heart medication if applicable
Stroke(COPY) • Disruption of blood supply to the brain • Types of stroke • Blocked Vessel • Ruptured Vessel • Stroke is the leading cause of death and serious disability among Americans
Assess: Stroke (COPY) • Facial Droop • Altered responsiveness and/or severe headache • Visual problems or dizziness • Speaking difficulties or slurred speech • Weakness or paralysis of one or more limbs
Respond: Stroke (COPY) • Call EMS Immediately • Can be the difference between recovery and disability • Monitor and Care • Check responsiveness • If unresponsive but breathing, place in recovery position For treatment to be effective it must be administered in the first 3 hours!
Asthma(COPY) • Airway inflamed and breathing restricted
Assess: Asthma (COPY) • Shortness of breath • Difficulty breathing • Wheezing • Rapid breathing • Bluish skin color
Respond: Asthma (COPY) • Assist with Medication • Monitor and Care • Keep victim in an upright position, leaning slightly forward for comfortable breathing
Hyperventilation(COPY) • Fast, deep breathing often associated with emotional stress
Assess: Hyperventilation (COPY) • Rapid, deep breathing • Dizziness • Numbness and tingling
Respond: Hyperventilation (COPY) • Monitor and Care • Calm victim • Encourage slow, regular breathing into cupped hands • Do NOT use a paper bag
Fainting and Seizures(COPY) • Decreased blood flow to the brain as a result of fright, anxiety, drugs, fatigue, heart rhythm disturbances, dehydration, or heat exhaustion.
Assess: Fainting and Seizures (COPY) • Fainting • Dizziness • Visual impairment • Nausea • Pale skin • Sweating • Seizure • Abnormal stimulation of brain
Respond: Fainting and Seizures (COPY) • Monitor and Care • Fainting • Place victim on back and elevate legs 6-12 inches • Seek medical care if condition doesn’t improve quickly • Seizures • Protect victim from injury • Place victim on side • Call EMS
Diabetic Emergencies (COPY) • Body fails to produce enough insulin that converts carbohydrates to energy for body cells. Cells are deprived of energy and sugar builds up in the blood. • Hypoglycemia is the most common • Low blood sugar • Hyperglycemia • High blood sugar
Assess: Diabetic Emergencies (COPY) • Poor coordination • Pale skin • Confusion/disorientation • Sudden hunger • Excessive sweating • Unresponsiveness
Respond: Diabetic Emergencies (COPY) • Provide fluids • If victim is conscious enough to swallow • Sugar if victim is a know diabetic • Monitor and Care • Call EMS is symptoms don’t improve
Emergencies During Pregnancy (COPY) • Transport immediately if: • Vaginal bleeding • Cramps in lower abdomen • Swelling of face or fingers • Severe, continuous headache • Dizziness or fainting • Blurring of vision or seeing spots • Uncontrollable vomiting
Bell Ringer #7Confusion Scenario #7 • You are conducting patron surveillance. An older adult has been exercising in about shoulder deep water. As you continue to scan you see him suddenly stop what he is doing; he looks confused and seems to be having trouble with one side of his body. • Describe what steps you would take to help this older adult and why you would take these actions.