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Lecture 18. Circulatory System I. Blood. Matrix between the cells is liquid Hemopoiesis Process of formation of blood cells Tissue found in marrow cavity and spongy bone Yellow Red. Table 4.13. Blood Vessel Structure. Arteries Elastic, muscular, arterioles, capillaries Capillaries

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Lecture 18
Lecture 18

Circulatory System I


  • Matrix between the cells is liquid

  • Hemopoiesis

    • Process of formation of blood cells

    • Tissue found in marrow cavity and spongy bone

      • Yellow

      • Red

Table 4.13

Blood vessel structure
Blood Vessel Structure

  • Arteries

    • Elastic, muscular, arterioles, capillaries

  • Capillaries

    • Most of exchange between blood and interstitial spaces (filled with interstitial fluid) occurs across the walls

    • Blood flows from capillaries to venous system

  • Aneurysm

    • Weak point in artery or wall of heart

    • May rupture (hemorrhage)

Systemic circulation arteries
Systemic Circulation: Arteries

  • Aorta

    • From which all arteries are derived either directly or indirectly

    • Parts

      • Ascending aorta, aortic arch, descending aorta (thoracic and abdominal)

Branches of the ascending aorta
Branches of the Ascending Aorta

  • Coronary arteries

    • Supply the heart’s cardiac muscle with oxygen and nutrients

Fig. 22.9

Branches of the aortic arch
Branches of the Aortic Arch

Right common carotid artery

Left common

carotid artery

Vertebral artery

Left subclavian


Right subclavian artery

Brachiocephalic trunk

  • First branch

    • Brachiocephalic trunk

    • Right common carotid and right subclavian

  • Second branch

    • Left common carotid

  • Third branch

    • Left subclavian

Aortic arch


thoracic aorta

Fig. 23.12

Review question
Review Question

An interruption in blood flow that resulted in less blood reaching the right shoulder and right neck (but not affecting the opposite side) could indicate a partial blockage in the

  • Right subclavian artery

  • Brachiocephalic artery

  • Right common carotid artery

  • Ascending aorta

  • Coronary arteries

Branches of the aortic arch head and neck arteries
Branches of the Aortic Arch:Head and Neck Arteries

  • Branches of common carotid arteries

    • Internal carotid arteries

    • External carotid arteries

  • Branches of the subclavian arteries

    • Left and right vertebral arteries

  • Internal carotids and vertebral arteries supply brain

Internal carotid artery

External carotid artery

Common carotid artery

Vertebral artery

Brachiocephalic trunk

Subclavian artery

Fig. 23.10

Branches of the aortic arch arteries of upper limb and shoulder
Branches of the Aortic Arch:Arteries of Upper Limb and Shoulder

Subclavian artery

Vertebral artery

  • Three major arteries

    • Subclavian

    • Axillary

    • Brachial

  • Subclavian is posterior to clavicle

  • Axillary is within axillary region (armpit)

  • Brachial is within brachium (arm)


Brachial artery

Radial artery

Ulnar artery

Fig. 23.19

Branches of the descending aorta arteries of the abdominal aorta
Branches of the Descending Aorta: Arteries of the Abdominal Aorta

Celiac trunk

  • Three major branches (in order from superior to inferior along abdominal aorta)

    • Celiac trunk

    • Superior mesenteric artery

    • Inferior mesenteric artery

Right renal artery

Left renal artery

Superior mesenteric artery

Descending abdominal


Inferior mesenteric artery

Common iliac artery

Left internal iliac artery

Left external iliac artery

Left femoral artery

Fig. 23.12

Branches of the descending aorta pelvis and lower limb
Branches of the Descending Aorta: Pelvis and Lower Limb Aorta

Anterior view

Posterior view

  • Abdominal aorta divides into:

    • Common iliac arteries

  • Common iliac arteries divide into:

    • External iliac arteries

    • Internal iliac arteries

  • Popliteal artery

  • Anterior and posterior tibial arteries

Common iliac artery

Internal iliac artery

External iliac artery

Femoral artery

Popliteal artery

Anterior tibial artery

Posterior tibial artery

Fig. 23.20

Points to remember
Points to Remember Aorta

  • Arteries transport blood away from the heart

  • Branches of aorta supply heart, head and neck, shoulder and upper limb, trunk, abdomen, pelvis and lower limb

Questions? Aorta