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Section 3.15. The Disintegration and Reconstruction of France. Political and Religious Disunity. France and Germany collapsed as a result of religious turmoil. Political and Religious Disunity. France and Germany collapsed as a result of religious turmoil

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section 3 15

Section 3.15

The Disintegration and Reconstruction of France

political and religious disunity
Political and Religious Disunity
  • France and Germany collapsed as a result of religious turmoil
political and religious disunity1
Political and Religious Disunity
  • France and Germany collapsed as a result of religious turmoil
  • Religious wars in France were political and religiously based
political and religious disunity2
Political and Religious Disunity
  • France and Germany collapsed as a result of religious turmoil
  • Religious wars in France were political and religiously based
  • New form of feudal rebellion against a higher central authority
what divided france
What divided France?
  • Feudal Rights and Religious Diversity
  • Centralism vs. Localism
what divided france1
What divided France?
  • Religious Diversity
    • Catholicism official state religion (Concordat of Bologna (1516)
    • Calvinism attracted nobles (Huguenots)
      • Over 33% nobility became Calvinist
      • laws allowed lords to regulate religion in their estates
        • gave them opportunity to appoint Calvinistic preachers
    • Towns leaned toward Protestantism (bourgeois oligarchy)
    • Unskilled laboring population remained Catholic
what divided france2
What divided France?
  • Feudal Rights and Religious Diversity
  • Centralism vs. Localism
    • New Monarchies tried to centralize administration
    • Challenges to the centralization came from
      • over 300 different legal systems in 300 small regions
      • bonnes villes (good towns) stubbornly held onto their corporate rights
civil and religious wars 1560 1600
Civil and Religious Wars 1560-1600
  • Huguenots saw opportunity to gain power over weak monarchs (Francis II (d. 1560), Charles IX (d. 1574), and Henry III (d. 1589)
  • Catherine de Medici –regent ruler
    • Perpetrated the The St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
    • against the Huguenots in Paris for Navarre’s wedding
    • 20 thousand murdered
civil and religious wars 1560 16001
Civil and Religious Wars 1560-1600
  • Huguenots saw opportunity to gain power over weak monarchs (Francis II (d. 1560), Charles IX (d. 1574), and Henry III (d. 1589)
  • Catherine de Medici –regent ruler
    • Perpetrated the The St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
    • against the Huguenots in Paris for Navarre’s wedding
    • 20 thousand murdered
the politiques
The Politiques
  • Out of chaos rose third party called the Politiques
    • said that too much was being made of religion
    • What was needed was civil order
    • Had a secular rather than a religious view
    • King should overlook religious ideas if citizens obey the king
henry bourbon of navarre
Henry Bourbon of Navarre
  • A Politique
  • Pragmatist and would use the Politique idea to gain the throne
  • Jean Bodin
    • first to discuss the modern theory of sovereignty
    • every society must have one power strong enough to give law
    • in France = absolutism
    • Sovereignty of the state emerges as the political model in the west to the present
henry bourbon of navarre1
Henry Bourbon of Navarre
  • A Politique
  • Pragmatist and would use the Politique idea to gain the throne
  • Jean Bodin
    • first to discuss the modern theory of sovereignty
    • every society must have one power strong enough to give law
    • in France = absolutism
    • Sovereignty of the state emerges as the political model in the west to the present
end of the wars reconstruction under henry iv
End of the Wars: Reconstruction under Henry IV
  • 1589 Henry III of France and Henry of Guise are assassinated
    • next legal inheritor is Henry Bourbon (of Navarre) (Henry IV)
end of the wars reconstruction under henry iv1
End of the Wars: Reconstruction under Henry IV
  • 1589 Henry III of France and Henry of Guise are assassinated
    • next legal inheritor is Henry Bourbon (of Navarre) (Henry IV)
    • Henry of Navarre brings the Bourbon dynasty to the throne
      • a Huguenot but recognized that Catholicism was the faith of the majority
      • Converts to Catholicism in 1593
        • “Paris is well worth a mass.”
end of the wars reconstruction under henry iv2
End of the Wars: Reconstruction under Henry IV
  • Henry of Navarre brings the Bourbon dynasty to the throne
    • a Huguenot but recognized that Catholicism was the faith of the majority
    • Converts to Catholicism in 1593
      • “Paris is well worth a mass.”
end of the wars reconstruction under henry iv3
End of the Wars: Reconstruction under Henry IV
  • Issued the Edict of Nantes to quiet the Huguenots
    • Protestants’ civil rights were protected
    • Gave Protestants the rights to defend themselves and maintain private armies (had 100 fortified towns)
    • Parlements refused to recognize the Edict
    • Silenced them by granting favors to Jesuits
slide26

End of the Wars: Reconstruction under Henry IV

  • Henry IV began rebuilding France:
      • “A chicken in the pot for every Frenchmen”
      • repaired roads, began rebuilding of business, ect.
          • Never summoned the estates general
          • Laid the foundations for absolutism
          • 1610: Henry IV was killed by Catholic fanatic
cardinal richelieu
Cardinal Richelieu
  • Governments of Marie de Medici and her son Louis XIII administered by Cardinal Richelieu
  • Cardinal but really a politique
cardinal richelieu1
Cardinal Richelieu
  • Governments of Marie de Medici and her son Louis XIII administered by Cardinal Richelieu
  • Cardinal but really a politique
  • Advanced mercantilism
  • Encouraged nobility to develop interests in commerce without loss of title or status
  • Encouraged merchants with grants of titles of nobility
  • Developed “commercial companies”
peace of alais
Peace of Alais
  • Prohibits private warfare and orders the destruction of fortified castles not used by the king
  • Peace of Alais amends the Edict of Nantes after Protestant uprising is put down

Cardinal Richelieu at the Siege of La Rochelle.

peace of alais1
Peace of Alais
  • Prohibits private warfare and orders the destruction of fortified castles not used by the king
  • Peace of Alais amends the Edict of Nantes after Protestant uprising is put down
  • Huguenots can not share political power, can not keep private armies
  • Huguenots can practice Protestantism
  • Path toward absolutism is being widened