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U.S. Imperialism Era 1898-1920. * Spanish-American War, 1898 *American Expansionism *World War I. Power Point created by Robert L. Martinez Primary Content Sources: The Americans (McDougal Little) & Mastering The Grade 11 Taks Social Studies Assessment (Killoran, Zimmer, Jarrett).

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U.S. Imperialism Era 1898-1920


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    1. U.S. Imperialism Era1898-1920

      *Spanish-American War, 1898 *American Expansionism *World War I Power Point created by Robert L. Martinez Primary Content Sources: The Americans (McDougal Little) & Mastering The Grade 11 Taks Social Studies Assessment (Killoran, Zimmer, Jarrett).
    2. Spanish-American War, 1898

      "Cuban volunteers in their barracks. Many of these were cigar makers at Tampa. "The "Army of the Cuban Republic" was made up from 40 Cubans from Jacksonville, 200 from New York, and 150 from Key West. They set sail on the Florida to join the rebels on May 21st. http://www.floridamemory.com/OnlineClassroom/PhotoAlbum/n041306.cfm
    3. The Spanish-American War marked a major turning point in U.S. foreign relations. At the conflicts conclusion, America would emerge as a world empire. American troops in Havana, Cuba. http://www.solpass.org/7ss/Images/war.gif http://www.floridamemory.com/OnlineClassroom/PhotoAlbum/pr10233.cfm
    4. In 1895, Cuban workers rebelled against Spain, seeking their independence. A Spanish army was sent to Cuba to crush the rebellion with brutal force. Several factors led to U.S. intervention in the conflict. Spanish Frigate “Vizcaya” http://www.hazegray.org/features/santiago/vizc06.jpg http://www.zpub.com/cpp/caw5.jpg
    5. SPANISH TROOPS MARCHING THROUGH SAN JUAN, THE CAPITAL OF PUERTO RICO (a Spanish possession.) http://www.antiquemapsandprints.com/p-0145.jpg
    6. Many Americans felt they had a moral obligation to help the Cuban people in their struggle for independence from Spain. America’s Founding Fathers signing the Declaration of Independence from Great Britain.
    7. Reasons for War: Cuban Independence, U.S. military and economic interests in Latin America, the Caribbean, and the Pacific, and the sinking of the U.S.S. Maine. http://americanhistory.si.edu/archives/images/d5300hh4.jpg
    8. Publishers like William Heart and Joseph Pulitzer sensationalized news events to sell newspapers. Their newspapers deliberately distorted the news from Cuba with exaggerated stories of atrocities. William Randolph Hearst http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Journal98.gif
    9. Yellow Journalism Illustrations such as the one on the right was printed to elicit anger from American readers. Front Page “Hearst” newspaper illustration: “Male Spanish officials strip search an American woman tourist in Cuba looking for messages from rebels.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yellow_journalism
    10. De Lome Letter The Spanish ambassador called President McKinley “weak” in a private letter that was published in the press. De Lome’s letter angered Americans against Spain. President McKinley De Lome http://www.williammckinley.net/ http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=53
    11. The American government sought to protect American investments (example: sugar & rum) in Cuba and to block any interruption of U.S. trade with Cuba. Cuban Sugar Industry http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/cuba/cuba1850-7.gif
    12. “Remember the Maine” January 25, 1898 -- The U.S.S. Maine enters Havana harbor, about three weeks later it mysteriously explodes. http://www.smplanet.com/imperialism/remember.html
    13. The battleship U.S.S Maine was mysteriously blown up in Havana in February, 1898. The press blamed the explosion on Spanish sabotage, enraging American public opinion. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/apr25.html http://www.floridamemory.com/OnlineClassroom/PhotoAlbum/n045404.cfm
    14. In 1898, President William McKinley, finding it difficult to resist the public outcry after the destruction of the U.S.S Maine, asks Congress for a declaration of war against Spain. On April 20th, the United States declares war. President McKinley http://www.pbs.org/crucible/tl12.html http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/presidents/wm25.html
    15. In the Caribbean, hostilities began with a naval blockade of Cuba. The Spanish fleet is effectively sealed up in the harbor of Santiago de Cuba. http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/images/n120000/n191610t.jpg
    16. The Spanish fleet tries to escape the American blockade at Santiago harbor. A naval battle ensues, and the Spanish fleet is destroyed. http://www.homeofheroes.com/wallofhonor/spanish_am/images/12_battle2.jpg
    17. Attempted Escape of Spanish Fleet http://www.homeofheroes.com/wallofhonor/spanish_am/12_santiago.html
    18. In June 1898, American forces landed in Cuba. American forces begin to converge on the port city of Santiago. The army consisted of 17,000 soldiers, including four African-American regiments (called Buffalo soldiers) of regular army and the volunteer Rough Riders, a cavalry unit. The key to capturing the city of Santiago was controlling the high grounds of San Juan Hill. http://www.veteranmuseum.org/images/cuba-landing.jpg
    19. On the way to secure San Juan Hill, a bloody and dramatic charge took place on nearby Kettle Hill. Without direct orders, Teddy Roosevelt, the Rough Riders, and two African-American regiments attacked and took Kettle Hill. http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/documents/spanam/Rrid1.jpg
    20. The battle of San Juan Hill is the bloodiest and most popular of all battles during the Spanish-American war. http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/1898/sanjuan1.gif
    21. Teddy Roosevelt and the Rough Riders http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rough_Riders http://www.floridamemory.com/OnlineClassroom/PhotoAlbum/pr10253.cfm
    22. “Speak softly and carry a big stick.  You will go far.” - Teddy Roosevelt http://www.teddyroosevelt.com/teddy_roosevelt_pictures.htm
    23. Lt. Col. Theodore Roosevelt and the Rough Riders conducting regimental drills in San Antonio, Texas, prior to fighting the Spanish in Cuba. http://www.bartleby.com/51/13.gif
    24. Rough Riders in San Antonio http://www.frfrogspad.com/m1895mg.jpg
    25. Rough Rider Reunion 1902,San Antonio, Texas At the 1902 reunion in San Antonio, the Rough Rider veterans agreed to purchase an artificial leg for Private Charles Buckholdt, who had lost his leg in a fight. http://www.sharlot.org/exhibits/1898/images/resampled/reunionsanantoniomil238pe%20.JPG
    26. Rough Riders charging up San Juan Hill http://www.teddyroosevelt.com/ http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/documents/spanam/RRIDS.JPG
    27. American forces quickly overcame the Spanish navy in the Philippines and defeated Spanish troops in Cuba. Skirmish lines in Cuba http://www-sul.stanford.edu/depts/dp/pennies/SPANISH.JPG http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/images/h01000/h01256.jpg http://www.floridamemory.com/OnlineClassroom/PhotoAlbum/pr10237.cfm
    28. As a result of the war, the United States acquired the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and Guam. Puerto Rico in the Caribbean http://www.infoplease.com/atlas/state/puertorico.html Philippines in the Pacific Guam in the Pacific http://www.map-zone.net/map/guam/ http://www.middleeastnews.com/MapofPhilippines.html
    29. Consequences of San Juan Hill The victory of San Juan Hill boasts morale and pride of the American people. Spain loses control of its possessions in the Caribbean. Teddy Roosevelt and the Rough Riders emerge as national heroes. San Juan Hill catapults Roosevelt’s political career.
    30. Political Cartoon:American Imperialism The cartoon displays Uncle Sam showing off in front of other world powers, while balancing the “primitives” of its newly acquired territories. ..Notice the racial tone and arrogance of the political cartoon. http://history.grand-forks.k12.nd.us/NDhistory/LessonImages/Sources/Cartoons/john%20bull.jpg
    31. The U.S. insisted that Cuba add to its new Constitution, the Platt Amendment, commanding Cuba to stay out of debt and giving U.S. the right to intervene in the country and the right to buy or lease Cuban land for naval and fueling stations.
    32. Guantánamo Bay Naval Base at the southeastern end of Cuba has been used by the United States Navy for more than a century, and is the oldest overseas U.S. Navy Base and the only one in a country with which the United States does not have diplomatic relations. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guantanamo_Bay_Naval_Base
    33. After the brief war, the United States emerges from the war in possession of an overseas empire. Presidential Campaign Poster for Mckinley-Roosevelt http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:10kMiles.JPG
    34. National Hero After the war with Spain, Roosevelt returned a hero and was soon elected governor of New York and then later won the vice-presidency. http://www.politicalbadges.com/1896%20Theodore%20Roosevelt%20(for%20Governor%20stud).jpg http://www.vw.vccs.edu/vwhansd/HIS122/Teddy/Images/trgov.jpg
    35. American Expansionism & the Panama Canal

    36. Imperialism Defined as the domination of one country by another. European imperialists had seized vast territories in Africa and Asia. Many Americans felt that the moment was now right for U.S. imperialism. With the closing of the American frontier, the nation continued its expansion overseas. http://asms.k12.ar.us/classes/humanities/worldstud/97-98/imper/Philippines/USA.HTM
    37. Some advocates argued that since the United States was now an industrial power, colonies could provide needed raw materials for American factories and a guaranteed market of U.S. manufacturers. http://www.jackdaw.com/pc-282-65-american-imperialism.aspx
    38. Others saw colonial expansion as a way of showing that the United States was a great nation, arguing the country should grab a few colonies before nothing was left. Inspired by Manifest Destiny. http://en.dcdatabaseproject.com/Image:Uncle_Sam_BNW_1.jpg
    39. In particular, these voices favored American control of the Caribbean, building a canal through Panama, and the acquisition of islands in the Pacific as coaling stations for ships trading with Asia. http://www.canalmuseum.com/
    40. Opponents felt that imperialism violated America’s democratic principles. They reminded citizens that America was also once a colony and had fought a war with Great Britain to break the chains of imperialism. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/de/Washington_Crossing_the_Delaware.png
    41. During these Imperialist years, the United States acquired a colonial empire in the Pacific consisting of the Philippines, Guam, Hawaii, Samoa, and Midway. http://www.historywiz.com/laimp-mm.htm
    42. Formerly part of the Spanish empire, the Philippines came under U.S. rule after the Spanish-American War. Filipino rebels had expected independence and fought against U.S. control until they were defeated in 1902. Filipino Rebels http://asms.k12.ar.us/classes/humanities/worldstud/97-98/imper/Philippines/USA.HTM http://people.bu.edu/juliango/publications_files/GoFostercover%2520copy.jfif
    43. In the mid-19th century, American settlers built sugar and pineapple plantations on Hawaii. These settlers overthrew the Hawaiian queen in 1893 despite her protests. American companies such as Dole (Sanford Dole) had a vested commercial interest in Hawaii and the American gvoernment supported those interests. After the outbreak of the Spanish-American War, Congress voted in favor of the annexation of Hawaii in 1898. http://harwich.edu/depts/history/pp/imperialism/sld006.htm
    44. The U.S. announced the Open Door Policy, favoring equal trading rights for all foreign nations in China. In 1900, the Box Rebellion threatened foreigners in China. An international army, with U.S. participation, crushed the rebellion, but Americans opposed any attempt by other nations to use the rebellion to dismember China. Boxer Rebel http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Boxer1900.jpg
    45. Gunship Diplomacy In 1853, the United States had forced open an isolationist Japan to Western trade and influence when Commodore Matthew Perry landed there with American navy. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:PerryFleet.jpg
    46. Panama Canal Military importance: Naval strategists believed that the United States needed a large navy and a canal through Central America to establish itself as a world sea power. http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/images/h73000/h73411.jpg
    47. President Roosevelt took steps to build a canal that would allow ships to cross between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans without circling South America. The Isthmus of Panama, the narrowest point in Central America, was a natural place to build the canal, but posed may challenges. http://harwich.edu/depts/history/pp/imperialism/sld049.htm
    48. Natures Challenges and the Panama Canal Tropical climate Disease-carrying mosquitoes Mountains http://www.healthsystem.virginia.edu/internet/library/historical/medical_history/yellow_fever/assets/panama.jpg
    49. When Panamanian rebels declared their independence from Columbia in 1903, Roosevelt sent U.S. warships to protect them. http://www.panamacanalcountry.com/images/US%20stamp%20of%20Ancon%20crossing%20Canal.jpg
    50. In return for U.S. protection, the new government of Panama gave the United States control of the Panama Canal Zone, a ten-mile wide strip of land through the center of Panama. http://www.smplanet.com/imperialism/joining.html
    51. Construction of the canal began in 1904. To prevent malaria and yellow fever, the U.S. Army cleaned up swamps where infected mosquitoes had bred. http://yellowfever.lib.virginia.edu/reed/images/03-NC.jpg http://www.tea.state.tx.us/student.assessment/resources/online/2006/grade11/ss/images/8graphicaa.gif
    52. They built a series of locks that raised shops to an artificial lake, across the central highland, and then lowered them back to sea level on the other side. http://z.about.com/d/cruises/1/0/r/w/1/panama_canal021.jpg
    53. It took the Army Corps of Engineers ten years to build the enormous locks and to remove millions of tons of earth to complete the canal. http://www.smplanet.com/imperialism/joining.html
    54. In the early 20th century, the U.S. government extended the Monroe Doctrine through the Roosevelt Corollary. http://www.mexicolore.co.uk/uploadimages/169_02_2.jpg
    55. In 1904, President Theodore Roosevelt declared that the U.S. would act as an “international police power” in Latin America. Rather than let European nations intervene to collect their debts, the U.S. would act for them. http://history.ucsc.edu/history25b/4-24slides_files/slide0010_image058.jpg
    56. The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine was used to justify sending troops into Haiti, Nicaragua, Honduras and the Dominican Republic. In this way, the United States protected its interests in the Panama Canal. Later, President Wilson intervened in both the Caribbean region and Mexico. www.csub.edu/~gsantos/jpgs/img0099.jpg
    57. World War I The Great War http://www.doglegs.net/cclovett/World%20War%20I.jpg
    58. Since the War of 1812, Americans had successfully avoided “entanglements” with Europe. A new turning point in U.S. policy was reached when America entered WWI. American armored troops going forward in the Argonne, France, September 26, 1918 http://www.gwpda.org/photos/bin15/imag1406.jpg
    59. How does isolationist America get involved? http://www.greatwardifferent.com/Great_War/Childrens_Books/Stories_of_the_Great_War/Stories_of_the_Great_War_03.jpg
    60. How does WW I begin? http://www.greatwardifferent.com/Great_War/Trenches/War%20Illustrated%20-%20Hindenburg%20Line%20006.jpg
    61. A devotion to the interests and culture of one’s nation, nationalism led to competitive and antagonistic rivalries among nations. German Kaiser Wilhelm II in 1917 http://www.stahlgewitter.com/jpg_17/kaiser_wilhelm_sofia1.jpg
    62. In this atmosphere of competition, many feared Germany’s growing power in Europe. In addition, various ethnic groups resented domination by others and longed for their nations to become independent. Many ethnic groups looked to larger nations for protection (for example: Russia & Europe’s Slavic peoples.) Imperial Guards passing Review before Kaiser Wilhelm II. http://www.gwpda.org/photos/bin06/imag0577.jpg
    63. Imperialism For centuries, European nations built empires, slowly extending their economic and political control over various peoples of the world. Colonies supplied the European imperial powers with raw materials and provided markets for manufactured goods. http://web.library.emory.edu/subjects/humanities/history/Nationalism/Nationalism.jpg
    64. As Germany industrialized, it competed with France and Britain in the contest for colonies. http://armsandinfluence.typepad.com/photos/arms_and_influence_refere/kaisersmall1.JPG
    65. New Technology vs. Old Standards German soldier prepared for gas warfare, but what about the horse? http://www.gwpda.org/photos/bin05/imag0472.jpg
    66. Each nation wanted stronger armed forces than those of any potential enemy, the imperial powers followed a policy of militarism- the development of armed forces and their use as a tool of diplomacy. http://www.firstaif.info/42/images-42/german-soldiers6.jpg
    67. The machine gun, poison gas, airplanes, and submarines are introduced into modern warfare, preventing either side form winning a quick victory. http://www.old-picture.com/american-history-1900-1930s/pictures/World-Tank-War-I-001.jpg
    68. Zeppelin Attacks (Blimps) http://www.ww1-propaganda-cards.com/index.html
    69. Aircraft of WW I http://www.firstaif.info/42/level2/weapons/aircraft-german.htm
    70. Dogfights:Aircraft in WW I http://www.ww1-propaganda-cards.com/index.html
    71. By 1890, Germany was the strongest nation, which had set up an army reserve system that drafted and trained young men. WW I German Unit on march. http://www.gwpda.org/photos/bin16/imag1530.jpg
    72. As an island nation, Britain had always relied on its navy for defense and protection of its shipping routes. The British navy was the strongest in the world. British Fleet heading out to sea. http://www.gwpda.org/photos/bin19/imag1802.jpg
    73. In 1897, Wilhelm II, Germany’s Kaiser, decided that his nation should become a major sea power in order to compete against the British. SMS Kaiser http://www.gwpda.org/photos/bin19/imag1835.jpg
    74. Soon British and German shipyards competed to build the largest battleships and destroyers. Deck of a British Warship http://www.gwpda.org/photos/bin19/imag1818.jpg
    75. France, Italy, Japan, and the United States quickly joined the naval arms races. Italian cruiser San Giorgio U.S. Floating Mine U.S.S. Texas http://www.gwpda.org/photos/bin03/imag0272.jpg http://www.gwpda.org/photos/bin07/imag0662.jpg http://www.gwpda.org/photos/bin07/imag0670.jpg
    76. By 1907 there were two major defense alliances in Europe. a. The Triple Entente (the Allies) b. The Triple Alliance (Central Powers) Germany versus the Triple Entente (the Allies). http://www.ww1-propaganda-cards.com/te015slide.html
    77. The alliance system provided a measure of international security because nations were reluctant to disturb the balance of power. http://www.ww1-propaganda-cards.com/index.html
    78. Triple Entente Consisted of France, Britain, and Russia. http://www.historiasiglo20.org/GLOS/images/tripleentente.jpg
    79. German Propaganda Poster: Anti- Triple Entente http://www.ww1-propaganda-cards.com/te020slide.html
    80. Triple Alliance Consisted of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy. http://www.ww1-propaganda-cards.com/index.html
    81. The assassination of Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand by a Serbian. The assassination touched off a diplomatic crisis. On July 28, 1914, Austria-Hungary declares war against Serbia. Archdukes car shown riddled with bullets.
    82. The alliance system pulled one nation after another into the conflict. On August 1, Germany, obligated by treaty with Austria-Hungary, declares war on Russia. On August 3, Germany declares war on Russia’s ally France. Germans in control of the Russian “Bear.” http://www.ww1-propaganda-cards.com/r008slide.html
    83. The Great War Begins After Germany invaded Belgium, Britain declares war on Germany and Austria-Hungary. http://www.gwpda.org/photos/bin05/imag0489.jpg
    84. Germany’s Schlieffen plan called for a holding action against Russia, combined with a quick drive through Belgium to Paris; after France had fallen, the two German armies would defeat Russia. WW I German soldiers on their way To the Western Front http://www.gwpda.org/photos/bin03/imag0203.jpg
    85. Unable to save Belgium, the Allies retreated to the Marne River in France, where they halted the German advance in September 1914. After struggling to outflank (get around) each other’s armies, both sides dug in for a long siege. http://www.wereldoorlog1418.nl/warpictures/battlefield01/images/11-roclincourt-kw64.jpg
    86. By the spring of 1915, two parallel systems of deep, rat-infested trenches crossed France from the Belgian coast to the Swiss Alps. http://www.wereldoorlog1418.nl/warpictures/battlefield01/images/13-lice-hunting-kw70.jpg
    87. French in the Trenches http://www.greatwardifferent.com/Great_War/Trenches/Images%20-%20Field%20with%20French%20007.jpg
    88. Western Front http://www.firstaif.info/42/images-42/map1915.gif
    89. Between the trenches lay “no man’s land” – a barren expanse of mud pockmarked with shell craters and filled with barb wire. Periodically, the soldiers charged enemy lines, only to be mowed down by machine gun fire. WW I German machine-gunners on the Western front. http://www.gwpda.org/photos/bin03/imag0258.jpg
    90. This bloody trench warfare, in which armies fought for mere yards of ground, continued for over three years. Final casualties totaled about 1.2 million, yet only about seven miles of ground changed hands. http://www.greatwardifferent.com/Great_War/Trenches/Trenches_Carillo_01.htm http://www.firstaif.info/42/images-42/trench-warfare.jpg
    91. World War I

      http://www.mtsu.edu/~kmiddlet/history/women/gif/wwi-seeds2.gif
    92. President Wilson attempted to follow the traditional policy of neutrality. Despite his efforts, the United States eventually became involved in the conflict. President Woodrow Wilson http://amhist.ist.unomaha.edu/module_files/Neutrality%20Cartoon%201.GIF http://www.books-about-california.com/Images/Presidents_War_Message/Woodrow_Wilson.jpg
    93. Closer ties with the Allies Many Americans traced their ancestry to Britain. A common language and history tied Americans to the British. Britain and France shared the same democratic political system. http://www.artchive.com/artchive/h/hassam/allies_day.jpg
    94. Americans were shocked at Germany’s invasion of neutral Belgium. Germans patrolling a small Belgium town. http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/FWWbelg.JPG http://www.greatwardifferent.com/Great_War/Germans_in_Belgium/Kriegsbilder%20-%20Belgium%20003.jpg
    95. The Zimmerman telegraph: a secret message from the German government, promised to return territories to Mexico if they acted against the United States. Americans were outraged when the telegram appeared in the newspaper. http://rutlandhs.k12.vt.us/jpeterso/MOREWW1/ZMMRMN.JPG
    96. A British blockade kept foreign food and arms. Germans only had submarines to fight back. http://www.ncwiseowl.org/WebQuest/amhistory/Images/frontpag.jpg
    97. In 1915, a German submarine sank the British passenger ship Lusitania, killing most passengers, including 128 Americans. Germany pledged not to sink any ocean liners without prior warning. http://flatrock.org.nz/topics/history/assets/lusitania_7_may_1915.jpg
    98. By 1917, Germany was suffering near starvation, and announced unrestricted submarine warfare. http://www.sorbie.net/S_sinkinga.jpg http://home.snu.edu/~dwilliam/s97/casualties/sub.jpg http://www.germannotes.com/hist_ww1_uboat1.jpg
    99. Despite the announcement of unrestricted submarine warfare, U.S. merchant ships continued to sail to Britain. When the number of ships sunk by German submarines increased dramatically, President Wilson asked Congress to declare war. President Wilson appearing before Congress. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a1/Wilson_announcing_the_break_in_the_official_relations_with_Germany.jpg/800px-Wilson _announcing_the_break_in_the_official_relations_with_Germany.jpg
    100. President Wilson won popular support by explaining that the war was necessary “to make the world safe for democracy.” http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.books-about-california.com/Images/Presidents_War_Message/Woodrow_Wilson.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.books-about-california.com/Pages/Presidents_War_Message/Presidents_WarMessage_text.html&h=500&w=313&sz=27&hl=en&start=10&tbnid=rquMKrb0J0SwMM:&tbnh=130&tbnw=81&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dwoodrow%2Bwilson%26gbv%3D2%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den
    101. To fight the war, Wilson was given sweeping powers. He established new agencies to regulate the wartime economy. The government supervised food and industrial production, shipping, and the railroads. http://arcweb.sos.state.or.us/exhibits/war/ww1/conserve.html
    102. Congress passed the Selective Service Act 0f 1917 to draft men for the army. Those who actively resisted conscription or the war effort faced imprisonment. http://arcweb.sos.state.or.us/exhibits/war/ww1/american.html
    103. The Supreme Court upheld these restrictions on free speech during wartime in Schenck v. United States. http://www.maxwell.syr.edu/plegal/scales/schenck.gif http://www.thebestkidsbooksite.com/nonpict/fbookpict/freespeech.jpg
    104. As workers were drafted and sent overseas, many women and African Americans filled their job (part of Great Migration.) http://arcweb.sos.state.or.us/exhibits/war/pics/camera/stamps.jpg
    105. The arrival of American troops helped break the deadlock in Europe, leading Germany to surrender in November 1918. http://freepages.military.rootsweb.com/~worldwarone/WWI/TheGeographyOfTheGreatWar/images/Figure35-Page35-sm.jpg
    106. General John J. Pershing Commanding General of American Expeditionary Force chasing Pancho Villa in Mexico, and fighting alongside the Allies in Europe during WWI. Believed in aggressive combat and felt that 3 years of trench warfare had made the Allies too defensive. http://www.firstworldwar.com/bio/graphics/pershing.jpg
    107. American Expeditionary Force The U.S. forces, led by General John Pershing, who fought with the Allies in Europe during World War I. Nicknamed Doughboys (American infantry), American forces helped to stop the German advance, capturing important enemy positions. http://www.landships.freeservers.com/jpegs/us_unifs/us_artyunifs_3.jpg http://www.flickr.com/photos/patrick_q/268183163/
    108. The Fourteen Points stated that each major European nationality should have its own nation and government. The Points called for freedom of the seas, reduced armaments, and an end to secret diplomacy. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/16598/16598-h/images/sweeney_012m.jpg
    109. Wilson felt the most important part of his plan was the creation of an international peace organization, the League of Nations, which would prevent future wars. Great Britain’s Lloyd George, France’s Clemenceau and America’s Wilson walk in Paris during Versailles Peace Accords. http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/history/images/hist_big3_versailles.jpg
    110. The final terms of the Treaty of Versailles were extremely harsh on Germany. Other treaties were similarly harsh on Germany’s allies, Austria and Turkey. http://www.historyonthenet.com/WW1/images/wpvd724u.jpg
    111. Lands lost by Germany in Versailles Peace Treaty http://www.historyonthenet.com/WW1/germanlosses.htm
    112. Key Terms of the 1919 Peace Settlement of World War I Germany lost territory to France and Poland, and all of its colonies. Germany lost its navy. Its army was reduced to the size of a police force. Germany had to accept blame for starting the war and was required to pay reparations (payment for damages) to the Allies. Austria-Hungary was divided into several new, smaller nations. A League of Nations was established.
    113. Senate rejects the League of Nations Wilson hoped the League of Nations would discourage future wars. His opponents believed it would drag Americans into unnecessary military commitments. The League of Nations failed, in part because many major world powers, including the United States, never became members. http://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/history/resources/graphic/large/Versailles.jpg
    114. Wilson neededtwo-thirds of the Senate to ratify the treaty. Wilson appealed directly to American voters by going on a national speaking tour. Wilson failed to realize that Americans were disillusioned with world affairs. During the tour, President Wilson suffers a crippling stroke. President Wilson dies as a result of his stroke on February 3, 1924. http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/images/wilson2.jpg
    115. During the 1920’s, Americans once again followed George Washington’s advice “to steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world.” Isolationism- refusing to become involved in other countries’ affairs. http://www.gamepuppet.com/presidents/george-washington.htm http://occawlonline.pearsoned.com/bookbind/pubbooks/martin_awl/medialib/download/2004.jpg
    116. Woman’s suffrage and the prohibition of alcohol were passed at the end of World War I, becoming the final reforms of the Progressive Era. Americans sought prosperity rather than further reform ending the Progressive era of reform. http://www.legendsofamerica.com/photos-americanhistory/ProhibitionPoster.jpg http://ap.grolier.com/images/cache/001/ht13t.jpg