the use of human biospecimens in cancer research n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
The use of human biospecimens in cancer research PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
The use of human biospecimens in cancer research

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 14

The use of human biospecimens in cancer research - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 70 Views
  • Uploaded on

The use of human biospecimens in cancer research. Christopher A. Moskaluk M.D., Ph.D. University of Virginia. Cancers are made up of cells…. DNA RNA p roteins lipids. Which are made up of various molecules….

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'The use of human biospecimens in cancer research' - lona


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
the use of human biospecimens in cancer research

The use of human biospecimens in cancer research

Christopher A. Moskaluk M.D., Ph.D.

University of Virginia

cancers are made up of cells
Cancers are made up of cells…..

DNA

RNA

proteins

lipids

Which are made up of various molecules…..

Understanding the molecular and cellular basis of why cancer cells behave differently from normal cells makes up most cancer research efforts

types of biospecimens
Types of biospecimens
  • Tissue
    • Cancer
    • Non-neoplastic
  • Biofluids
    • Blood
    • Urine

A major source of cells and the biomolecules that make up those cells

Can be a source of cells, but mostly a source of biomarkers (molecules made by cells)

types of biomarkers
Types of biomarkers
  • Screening
    • Am I at risk of developing cancer?
    • Can I detect my cancer early?
  • Diagnostic
    • Do I have cancer?
    • What type of cancer do I have?
  • Predictive
    • Will my cancer respond to this therapy?
    • What therapy will my cancer respond best to?
  • Prognostic
    • How long do I have doc?
  • Post-treatment surveillance
    • Has my cancer come back?
types of cancer research
Types of cancer research
  • Discovery science
  • Experimental science
  • Correlational science
how are biospecimens used in cancer research
How are biospecimens used in cancer research?
  • Discovery science
    • Making associations
    • Surveys of biological, chemical and physical attributes using cancer biospecimens
      • What does cancer look like?
      • What are cancer cells made of?
      • How does all of this differ from normal cells?
      • What potential biomarkers are present in the sample?
    • New aspect of discovery science (“-omics”)
      • Assay hundreds to millions of molecules at once
how are biospecimens used in cancer research1
How are biospecimens used in cancer research?
  • Experimental science
    • Understand mechanism – how cancer works
    • Experimental method
      • Frame a hypothesis
      • Create a model system
      • Manipulate variables while holding other parameters constant to test the hypothesis
    • Biospecimens are used to create model systems
creating experimental model systems from cancer samples
Creating experimental model systems from cancer samples

Isolate living cancer cells,

grow them in containers

Isolate living cancer tissue,

implant into special animals

Cell culture

Xenografts

how are biospecimens used in cancer research2
How are biospecimens used in cancer research?
  • Correlational science -looking for specific features in cancer biospecimens:
    • Experimental science correlation
      • Are features of cancer predicted by a model system present in the tumors or bodies of cancer patients?
    • Clinical trial correlation
      • What features of the patients’ cancer predict response to therapy?
      • What changes are occurring in the cancer due to the therapy?
issues in access to cancer biospecimens
Issues in access to cancer biospecimens

In routine clinical practice, only materials left over from routine histologic examination of tissues usually are kept.

Embed representative pieces in wax blocks

Cut thin sections onto glass slides for microscopic examination

Fix in formaldehyde

Paraffinblock

Histologic section

Thrown away after a few weeks

Kept for years

These tissues are dead and are molecularly-damaged from the processing, hence are useful only for a limited range of studies.

issues in access to cancer biospecimens1
Issues in access to cancer biospecimens
  • Obtaining fresh or flash-frozen tissue samples requires EXPENSIVE infrastructure not found in most non-academic clinical centers.
  • Blood and other fluid biospecimens are not routinely stored in routine clinical practice and again require specialized infrastructure to obtain and store
issues in access to cancer biospecimens2
Issues in access to cancer biospecimens
  • Both the banking and use of biospecimens and annotated medical data fall under Federal Law concerning Human Subjects Research and Personal Health Information
    • Access to human subjects (and their biospecimens) are under the purview of the Institutional Review Board of where the specimens were obtained
    • Access to annotated clinical data is controlled by the HIPPA Privacy Board of where the specimens were obtained
issues in access to cancer biospecimens3
Issues in access to cancer biospecimens
  • As a consequence of the expense and the regulatory complexity concerning human biospecimens, most biospecimens are used within the institutions that acquired them
  • Exceptions:
    • Multi-center research groups and cooperative clinical trial groups often have specimen sharing agreements
    • A few national biospecimen resources
      • CHTN, NDRI, DoD (PCBN, LCBRN)
    • A few commercial sources, but VERY expensive
conclusions
Conclusions
  • Human biospecimens are key to all stages and steps of cancer research
    • From basic science to clinical trials
  • Routine clinical practice does not reliably obtain such specimens for research
    • Investments in infrastructure required to obtain these
      • Often neglected and underfunded
  • The numbers of, and access to, high-quality human cancer biospecimens remain issues