Release of Material from Radiological Controls in Accelerators
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Release of Material from Radiological Controls in AcceleratorsSayed Rokni, Jim Allan, Alberto Fasso, James Liu, Amanda Sabourov, Joachim Vollaire, and Hirokuni Yamanishi Radiation Protection DepartmentSLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, U.S.A. DOE Accelerator Safety Workshop, SLAC, August 17-19, 2010,

Outline Accelerators

  • Regulatory Background

  • Secretarial Memoranda

  • Site Impact

    • PEP-II, BaBar

  • Induced Radioactivity in Accelerators

    • Activation characteristics

    • Surface measurements

    • Proxy radionuclides

  • Radiological Clearance Workshop

    • Volumetric release criteria

    • Measurement protocols

  • Expected Outcomes from the Workshop

Regulatory background
Regulatory Background Accelerators

  • DOE Order 5400.5-1993 has provided requirements and guidelines for unrestricted release of property from radiological control

  • Specific limits for surface contamination levels are prescribed in the Order

  • No limits are given for release of material that has volumetric radioactivity. Such volumetrically contaminated materials may be released only on a case-by-case basis if criteria and survey techniques are approved by DOE

  • For use with DOE Order 5400.5, DOE issued a draft Guide G 441.1-xx in 2002 for the implementation of the control and release of property that may contain residual radioactive material

Secretarial memoranda
Secretarial Memoranda Accelerators

  • Secretarial Moratorium (January 2000)

    • Prohibits the release of volumetrically contaminated metals … into commerce

  • Secretarial Suspension (July 2000, modified January 2001)

    • Suspends the unrestricted release for recycling of scrap metals from radiation areas within DOE facilities

    • Radioactive or not

Pep ii b factory at slac
PEP-II B Factory at SLAC Accelerators

HER = 2200 m, LER = 2200 m

HER injection line = 2300 m, LER injection line = 2900 m

Total length of beam line = 9600 m (6.0 miles)

  • Radioactive components (< 6%)

Preliminary field surveys pep activation
Preliminary Field Surveys: PEP Activation Accelerators

  • Gross survey map

  • Yellow shading represents some items in the area read above background

    • used Ludlum Model-18 with 44-2 1”x1” NaI detector

Structures from babar detector
Structures from BaBar Detector Accelerators

Magnet flux return (slabs of steel) and support girders

Slac site impact
SLAC Site Impact Accelerators

Induced radioactivity in accelerators

Induced Radioactivity in Accelerators Accelerators

-Induced radioactivity is volumetric with maximum at a surface

-Profile of radionuclides

11 Accelerators

Potential Activation in Electron Accelerators Tunnel

Bremsstrahlung Photons

Electron Beam Loss

  • Photonuclear

  • Spallation

  • Neutron Capture

High-Energy and Low-Energy Neutrons

Beam losses
Beam Losses Accelerators

  • Beam losses, and consequent material activation, occur only on limited portions of an accelerator facility

  • Some are produced on a small number of components designed to intercept the full beam power(targets, beam dumps) or a fraction of the beam (collimators)

  • Other abnormal losses may occur at a few locations, due to mis-steering

  • Most components (magnets, support structures, sections of vacuum chamber) do not become radioactive, especially at electron accelerators

Activation characteristics
Activation Characteristics Accelerators

  • No alpha emitters are produced

  • No surface contamination in metals and other solid materials due to beam operations

  • For material release purposes, in general, most abundant radioisotopes are those with a half-life of the order of the irradiation time (about 1 to 10 years)

  • Induced activity in an object is volumetric and presents its maximum at the surface that faces beam loss points

    • This supports surface measurements

  • Radioisotopes that are difficult to detect are generally accompanied by “proxy” radioisotopes that can be clearly measured

    • This supports measurements for proxy radioisotopes, instead of measurements for all potential radioisotopes that can be produced

Critical and proxy radioisotopes
Critical and Proxy Radioisotopes Accelerators

Radioisotopes with long half-lives are of interest.

Hard-to-measure radioisotopes (3H, 55Fe) emit only beta or low-energy X rays

Proxy radioisotopes (22Na, 54Mn, 60Co) emit high-energy and high-intensity gamma rays

10 Sv/y  ANSI N13.12

Screening Level (SL):

22Na, 54Mn, 60Co: 30 pCi/g

55Fe, 3H: 3000 pCi/g

Detection Limit requirement:

∑i(MDAi / SLi)  1

Example of fluka induced activity calculations babar detector at slac

15 Accelerators

Example of FLUKA Induced Activity Calculations: BaBar Detector at SLAC

Three Floors High,

Thousands of Pieces

Volumetric activation profile in metals
Volumetric Activation Profile in Metals Accelerators

The activity profile of each BaBar component has its maximum on the side that faces the source (e+ and e-collision point)

SLAC Radiation Protection Dept. Note 09-04, 2009

Example of fluka benchmark exp t489 at slac
Example of FLUKA benchmark Accelerators– Exp T489 at SLAC

Comparison of the calculated and measured residual activity

  • Copper sample down beam of the target

Radioisotopes for metals in babar
Radioisotopes for Metals in AcceleratorsBaBar

Radioactivity in the BaBar IFR forward steel plug at three decay times

(SA/SL) for 55Fe is much less than (SA/SL) for 60Co

Fluka calculated activity profiles in concrete wall
FLUKA-calculated Activity Profiles in Concrete Wall Accelerators

55Fe / 22Na 10

Depth (cm)

Depth (cm)

Activity (Bq/g/W)

55Fe / 22Na 2

3H / 22Na 5

Depth (cm)

Depth (cm)

10-year irradiation and 5-year decay

Doe initiatives
DOE Initiatives Accelerators

  • Revision of DOE Order 5400.5 (DOE O 458.1)

  • Scrap metal management review of NNSA sites

  • DOE review of SC accelerator labs: SLAC, TJLAB

  • NNSA/SC Joint Working Group

  • Radiological Clearance of Property Workshop, March 30- April 1, 2010, Las Vegas, Nevada

Doe technical assist visit of slac in december 2009
DOE technical assist visit of SLAC in December, 2009 Accelerators

  • Review of the property and material clearance processes

  • Evaluate progress made to develop and implement enhancements to these processes

  • DOE team reviewed SLAC radiological material clearance and occupational radiation safety programs and

    • Identified five proficiencies with operations that demonstrates SLAC has continued to make improvements with their site processes and site procedures.

      • Compliance with regulations and policies, technical basis, reduction of radiological areas, communication with public, proper survey technique

    • Four observations were noted where additional improvements could be made to further enhance SLAC operations

      • Property control, Independent verification, Survey instrumentation, Procedures

Disposition of slac materials
Disposition of SLAC Materials Accelerators

  • Two memos from DOE:

    • April 13, 2010 on disposition of concrete shield blocks

    • June 9, 2010 on disposition of BaBar detector and PEP-II material

  • SLAC Site Office letter of July 1, 2010

    • Provides SLAC and SSO with a basis for developing and implementing a site strategy for disposition of CSB and scrap metal from BaBar and PEP-II projects, including the release of scrap metal for recycling

    • The significance of the memoranda is that it now provides the SSO and SLAC with the authority to proceed with the disposition of certain materials in accordance with the requirements of DOE Order 5400.5 and SSO approval.

Joint activation working group
Joint Activation Working Group Accelerators

  • Co-Team Leads

  • Scott Davis – SC-31.1 HQ

  • Major David Pugh – NA-171.2 HQ

  • SC Representatives

  • Dennis Ryan BNL

  • Sayed Rokni SLAC

  • Don Gregory ORNL

  • NNSA Representatives

  • Michael Duran LANL

  • Todd Sundsmo LLNL

  • Todd Culp SNL

Nnsa sc joint working group
NNSA/SC joint Working Group Accelerators

  • Develop… “Technical Position that will support the release of equipment and material from accelerator facilities and operations where there is potential for induced radioactivity or activated material”

  • “This effort shall include all available facility, equipment, material, survey and detection information needed to derive criteria that can be used to determine the areas of and extent of activation.”

  • “Criteria being developed should be reasonable and detection activities should be based on current techniques used within the Department and private industry.”

  • Volumetric Activation

Regulations and standards
Regulations and Standards Accelerators

  • Clearance based on a dose criterion of 1 mrem/y has been recommended:

    • IAEA Safety Series 89 (1988)

    • EU Radiation Protection No. 89 (1998)

    • ANSI N13.12 (1999) – “…Volume Radioactivity Standards for Clearance”

    • NCRP-144 “Managing potentially radioactive scrap metal” (2002)

    • DOE O 458.1 (Draft)

  • Clearance levels (in specific activity) for radioisotopes are derived:

    • IAEA-TECDOC-855 “Clearance levels for radionuclides in solid materials” (1996)

    • EU Radiation Protection No. 122 (2000)

    • ANSI N13.12 (1999)

Volumetric release criteria
Volumetric Release Criteria Accelerators

  • Indistinguishable from Background (IFB): the level below which materials are not subject to further regulatory control and can have unrestricted release

  • > IFB and≤ ANSI N13.12 (1999) Screening Levels(dose criterion of <1 mrem per year): as DOE pre-approved Authorized Limits for materials that may be volumetrically activated in accelerators

    • Allows for consistent technical basis to document compliance with standards, directives, and Executive Orders

    • > ANSI N13.12 (1999) Screening Levels: may be released through the DOE Order 5400.5 Derived Authorized Limit process

Process knowledge
Process Knowledge Accelerators

  • Includes but not limited to: physics of induced radioactivity, facility operations, analytic or Monte Carlo calculations, and/or measurements to determine the types and the levels of induced radioisotopes in accelerators

  • Process knowledge allows a graded approach such as the use of Areas of Interest (AOIs) concept

    • AOIs are areas with potential for activation above background due to beam losses

    • Materials in the AOIs are suspect activated

    • Materials outside the AOIs are not activated (low energy and/or low intensity beam lines)

    • Representative measurements to confirm predictions

Material release
Material Release Accelerators

  • Measurement Protocols demonstrate that induced activity in materials are either Indistinguishable from Background or meet ANSI Screening Levels

  • Need Technical Basis to support measurement protocols

  • Administrative controls need to be addressed for release above IFB – these can include recipient consent concepts, quality control and verification, and documentation on release processes

Slac measurement protocols
SLAC Measurement Protocols Accelerators

  • Measure surfaces of an item

  • Measurements using commercially available field instruments and techniques with sufficient sensitivity (e.g., scanning with a 1”x1” scintillator detector)

  • Instrument response is indistinguishable from natural background

  • The Minimum Detection Activity (MDA) level of the measurements for the “proxy” radioisotopes of interest are no more than the corresponding ANSI Screening Levels (SL), i.e., ∑i(MDAi / SLi)  1

  • Laboratory analysis of representative samples as waranetd

Asw 2010 workshop expected outcome
ASW 2010 Workshop Expected Outcome Accelerators

  • Goal: Consistent measurement protocols to support for unrestricted release of concrete and metals

  • Questionnaire on Measurement protocols

  • Discussions of issues, show-stoppers and problems, and solutions that are expected or have occurred in the material release process of each lab

  • Deliverable: Benchmark report

Asw 2010 workshop questionnaire on measurement protocols
ASW 2010 Workshop –Questionnaire on Measurement protocols Accelerators

  • Release criteria

  • Field instruments

  • Methods (e.g. direct scan, discrete points)

  • Graded measurement approach based on MARSSIM/MARSAME considerations

  • Additional verification measurements (e.g. analytic sampling, portal gate monitors)

  • Process knowledge

  • Record management

  • Reporting, public information

  • Technical basis documents

  • Impact to each site from metal moratorium

Thank you

Thank you Accelerators

Slac path forward for fy11
SLAC Path forward for FY11 Accelerators

  • Complete SLAC release protocol consistent with guidance

    • Program manual, technical basis document, operating procedures, document and record management

  • Material management plan

    • Identify components to be released

  • Develop SSO/SLAC oversight and independent verification

  • Develop stakeholder communication and reporting plan

  • Release large shielding blocks, metals from PEP-II and BaBar

Fluka calculated activity profiles in concrete wall1

38 Accelerators

FLUKA-calculated Activity Profiles in Concrete Wall

Surface Maximum


55Fe / 22Na 10

Activity (Bq/g/W)


55Fe / 22Na 2

3H / 22Na 2

Depth (cm)

  • 10-year irradiation and 1-year decay

39 Accelerators

Measured Activity Depth Profiles in Concrete

220 MeV

45 MeV

1.3 GeV

Measurements by Masumoto et al. of KEK at three electron accelerators “Evaluation of radioactivity induced in the accelerator building and its application to decontamination work,” Journal of Radio-analytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 255:3, 2003.