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Developments in Transportation System Networks. November 2009. Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS). Term generally applied to technology used to reduce congestion and improve safety in transport – most often road transport Not a new idea – has been around since 1960s

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intelligent transport systems its
Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS)
  • Term generally applied to technology used to reduce congestion and improve safety in transport – most often road transport
  • Not a new idea – has been around since 1960s
    • Variable-message signs in use since 1960s
    • SCATS, SCOOT, TRAC traffic light control developed in 1970s (and still in use today)
    • Intelligent transport society of America founded in 1991
    • Intelligent transportation systems given radio spectrum spot by FCC in 1999 – Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC)
convergence onto ip ethernet
Convergence onto IP/Ethernet
  • During the 2000s, the elements of ITS have amalgamated onto a single communication system for
    • CCTV
    • VoIP
    • Variable sign control
    • On-ramp metering
    • Toll-booth systems
    • Microwave vehicle detection systems
    • Even bridge movement detection
active traffic management
Active traffic management
  • Integrated data and coordinated access to signs/controls enables the following actions dynamically in response to conditions
    • Speed control
    • Route control
    • Quickly clearing traffic out of lanes
    • Opening outer lane
    • Turning on-ramp controls on/off
next step communicate with the vehicle
Next step - Communicate with the vehicle
  • Current methods communicate with the driver
  • Aimed mostly at congestion reduction
  • Now the scope is broadening to take in safety
  • To make serious safety gains, it is necessary to communicate with the vehicle
  • Machines can react more quickly than people
vehicle communications
Vehicle communications
  • Vehicle to Vehicle (V2V)
    • vehicles to be informed of braking action of vehicles in front
    • vehicles warn oncoming traffic of icy patches.
    • emergency vehicles alert other vehicles of their approach
    • awareness of vehicles in ‘blind spot’
  • Vehicle to Infrastructure (V2I)
    • infotainment
    • Navigation
    • Internet Access
the car as a lan
The Car as a LAN
    • Low-speed data buses between electronic components being replaced by ethernet
  • Driven by software upload times in repair shops
  • Ethernet-connected entertainment devices installed
  • Ethernet for external communication
mobile ip evolution
Mobile IP evolution
  • Mobile IPv4 – RFC 2002 (1996)
    • Defined Mobile Node, Home Agent, Foreign Agent, Home Address, Care-of Address
    • Mobile node’s data tunnelled between Foreign Agent and Home Agent
    • Protocol details refined in later RFCs
  • Mobile IPv6 – RFC 3775 (2004)
    • No need for foreign agent
    • No IP-in-IP encapsulation – uses IPv6 extension headers
    • Supports ‘route optimization’ – direct communication no via home network
    • Uses inherent security headers
  • IPv6 provides superior mobility solution to IPv4
mobile ip evolution cont
Mobile IP evolution cont.
  • NEMO – RFC 3963 (2005)
    • Mobility for whole subnets, not just individual hosts – hence NEtwork MObility
    • Does not support route optimization
    • Does support nesting of mobile subnets
  • Suitable protocol for the V2I communication of In-car LANs
nemo problems to be solved
NEMO – problems to be solved
  • Handover latency
    • Acquiring new address in new foreign network
    • Re-establishing connection with home agent
  • Routing inefficiency and Extension header overheads
    • Required to communicate via home network
    • Extreme case – aeroplane moving a network 1000s of miles
    • Need to introduce route optimization
  • IPSec overheads
    • Move to certificate-based key negotiation
layer 1 and layer 2 communications
Layer-1 and Layer-2 communications
  • IEEE 802.11 Task Group p has developed 802.11p – known as Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE)
    • Supports rapidly changing environment
    • Provides fast connection establishment
      • No need to agree on SSID, just use a wildcard
    • Uses DSRC spectrum
    • Developed with road safety applications as primary goal
    • Acceptance that carrying commercial services required to speed uptake
vanets
VANETs
  • Vehicular ad-hoc Networks
    • Groups of vehicles forming adhoc connections using 802.11p
    • V2V and V2I connections
geographic routing geonet
Geographic routing - GeoNet
  • Geographic routing applied specifically to VANETs
  • Uses the geographic position and movement information of vehicles to route data packets.
  • Each node maintains a location table including location related information for itself and a list of its neighbouring nodes.
  • Position information, including speed and direction, exchanged in beacon packets
  • Forwarding uses Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing (GPSR) protocol
geonet cont
GeoNet cont.
  • Communication modes:
  • GeoUnicast – from a node to a known location
  • GeoAnyCast – from a node to any node in a geographic area
  • GeoBroadCast – from a node to all nodes in a geographic area
  • Topo-Broadcast – from a node to all nodes a given number of hops away
security challenge
Security challenge
  • Inter-vehicle communications must be secure
    • Hackers could cause severe problems
    • Communication relayed through intermediate vehicles requires privacy
  • But very challenging environment for security
    • Require fast inter-vehicle connection establishment
    • Vehicles must collaborate to forward traffic
    • Very little knowledge of neighbouring nodes
    • Not guaranteed access to PKI certificate authorities
privacy
Privacy
  • If vehicles are too easily identified, they can be tracked, for malign purposes
  • Need to use multiple certificates, and swap between certificates at random intervals
  • Need to generate multiple IPv6 addresses, and swap between certificates at random intervals
active bodies
Active bodies
  • C2C-CC – Car to Car Communication Consortium
  • non-profit organisation initiated by six European car manufacturers aiming to develop a open industrial standard for inter-vehicle communication
  • CVIS – Cooperative Vehicle Infrastructure Systems
  • consortium of 60 vehicle and parts manufacturers, universities, research institutes, national road administrations. To develop standards and components for V2V and V2I communications
  • SeVeCom – Secure Vehiclar Communications
  • EU-funded project that focuses on providing a full definition and implementation of security requirements for vehicular communications.
active bodies cont
Active bodies – cont.
  • JARI - Japan Automobile Research Institute
  • IETF, ETSI, ITU, IEEE, ISO, etc
  • ISO working Group – CALM – Continuous Air-Interface Long and Medium range
  • Defining protocols, management interfaces, interoperability, for V2V and V2I communications over a variety of media
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