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May 9 2013
May 9, 2013

A woman previously diagnosed with a psychological disorder was caught on videotape stealing a police car. The police officers used restrain, even after she threatened them with what appeared to be a weapon, and took her into custody unharmed. After the incident, her husband appealed to lawmakers to change the law that allows someone who has been diagnosed with a psychological disorder to refuse treatment. The woman’s family believed that the incident could have been avoided if they had been allowed to admit her psychiatric care.

  • Your Question to answer on a sheet of paper

    • Should the laws be changed? Under what circumstances should someone’s caregivers be able to force treatment?

What are psychological disorders
What are Psychological Disorders

- Intro story page 447

  • Difficult to draw a line between normal and abnormal behavior

  • Just because a person is different does not necessarily mean that he or she is suffering from mental illness

Defining and identifying psychological disorders
Defining and identifying psychological Disorders

  • Popular ways of drawing the line between normal and abnormal behavior

    • Deviation from Normality

      • Whatever most people do is the norm therefore any deviation is abnormal

      • Majority is not always right or best

    • Adjustment

      • Normal people are able to get along in the world – physically, emotionally, and socially

    • When psychological problems become severe enough to disrupt everyday life it is thought of as an abnormality or illness

The problem of classification
The Problem of Classification

  • Psychological problems cannot be categorized the same way that physical illnesses can

  • Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)

    • Essential Features – characteristics that define the disorder

    • Associated Features – Additional features

    • Differential Diagnosis – how to distinguish this disorder from other disorders

    • Diagnostic Criteria – List of symptoms

The problem of classification1
The Problem of Classification

  • DSM-IV

    • Often a person shows more than one disorder or may be experiencing other stresses that complicate the diagnosis

    • Axes – each axis reflects a different aspect of a patient’s case

      • Axis I – classify current symptoms into defined categories

      • Axis II – Describe developmental disorders and long standing personality disorders or traits such as compulsiveness, over-dependency, or aggressiveness

The problem of classification2
The Problem of Classification

  • Axis III – describe physical disorders or general medical conditions that are potentially relevant to understanding or caring for the person

  • Axis IV – measurement of the current stress level at which the person is functioning

  • Axis V – describes the highest level of adaptive functioning present within the past year

Anxiety disorders
Anxiety Disorders

  • Anxiety is a general state of dread or uneasiness that a person feels in response to real or imagined danger

  • Anxious people have difficulty forming stable and satisfying relationships

Generalized anxiety disorder
Generalized Anxiety Disorder

  • Anxiety can develop into a full fledged panic attack

    • Choking sensations, chest pains, dizziness, trembling, and hot flashes

  • People become so preoccupied with internal problems they neglect social relationships and have trouble dealing with family and friends

Generalized anxiety disorder1
Generalized Anxiety Disorder

  • Why are people anxious?

    • Some theorists stress the role of learning

      • Example: If a man feels very anxious on a date and the thought of another date makes him nervous he learns to avoid dates and never unlearns the behavior

    • Environmental Factors

      • Unpredictable traumatic experiences in childhood can allow people to develop an anxiety disorder

Phobic disorder
Phobic Disorder

  • Phobia – when severe anxiety is focused on a particular object, animal, activity, or situation that seems out of proportion to the real dangers involved

  • Phobic individuals develop elaborate plans to avoid the situation

  • Phobias range from mild to extremely severe

  • One form of treatment is to provide opportunities for the phobic person to experience the feared object under SAFE conditions

Phobia poster yay
Phobia Poster!!!! YAY!

  • Pick a Phobia – any phobia will do



    • Define the phobia

    • Symptoms of the phobia

    • Impacts of the phobia – socially, privately etc.

    • Visual Representation of the phobia

    • Steps to overcome the phobia

Panic disorder
Panic Disorder

  • Panic Disorder – extreme anxiety that shows itself in the form of panic attacks

    • Panic Attacks

      • Victims experience sudden and unexplainable attacks of intense anxiety

      • Feel that doom is inevitable and he or she is about to die

      • Sense of smothering, choking, difficulty breathing, dizziness, nausea and chest pains

      • Last a few minutes but occur with no warning

Obsessive compulsive disorder
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

  • Obsession – uncontrollable pattern of thoughts

  • Compulsions – repeatedly perform coping behaviors

  • Obsessive – Compulsive Disorder – puts obsessions and compulsions together

Obsessive compulsive disorders
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders

  • When is it a problem?

    • When thoughts and activities interfere with what a person wants and needs to do

Post traumatic stress disorder
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

  • PTSD – person who has experienced a traumatic event feels severe and long-lasting aftereffects

    • May begin immediately or develop later

    • Involuntary flashbacks or recurring nightmares

    • Not everyone who experiences traumatic events experience PTSD

Somatoform disorders
Somatoform Disorders

  • Conversion Disorders

    • Conversion of emotional difficulties into the loss of a specific physiological function

      • Can result in a real and prolonged handicap: person literally cannot feel or move anything

Somatoform disorders1
Somatoform Disorders

  • Hypochondriasis – a person who is in good health becomes preoccupied with imaginary ailments

Dissociative disorders
Dissociative Disorders

  • Dissociative Disorder – significant breakdown in a person’s normal conscious experience – loss of memory or identity

Dissociative disorders1
Dissociative Disorders

  • Dissociative Amnesia – attempt to escape from problems by blotting them out completely

    • Often results from a traumatic event

Dissociative disorders2
Dissociative Disorders

  • Dissociative Fugue – amnesia is coupled with active flight to a different environment

    • Example: A Woman may suddenly disappear and wake up three days later in a restaurant 200 miles from home

      • She may repress all knowledge of a previous life

      • May last a few days or for decades

Dissociative disorders3
Dissociative Disorders

  • Dissociative Identity Disorder (multiple personality disorder)

    • Eve White – 22 personalities

    • Sybil – 16 personalities

    • These cases are extremely rare and controversial

      • People diagnosed with this disorder usually suffered from severe physical. Psychological, or sexual abuse

      • Learned to dissociate themselves from stressful events by forgetting them

Schizophrenia and mood disorders
Schizophrenia and Mood Disorders

  • Schizophrenics have difficulty using language to communicate

    • Will not remember the beginning of a sentence and then finish it with an unrelated thought

  • People with schizophrenia may withdraw from normal life and reach an irrational, fear-laden, and unimaginable ways that are difficult for others to understand


  • What is Schizophrenia?

    • Problems with cognition but also emotions, perceptions and motor functions

    • Affects 1 in 100 people in the world

      • 1 in 10 if schizophrenia runs in the family

    • Involves confused and disordered thoughts and perceptions and the person has lost contact with reality

    • There is no single cause or cure

Types of schizophrenia
Types of Schizophrenia

  • Paranoid Type

    • Involves hallucinations and delusions

  • Catatonic Type

    • Remain motionless for long periods

  • Disorganized Type

    • Incoherent language, inappropriate emotions

  • Remission Type

    • Symptoms are completely gone or still exist but are not severe enough

Causes of schizophrenia
Causes of Schizophrenia

  • Many Theories

  • Biological Influences

    • Genetics is involved

    • Identical Twins – If one twin develops schizophrenia only 42% of the twin’s siblings will develop it

    • 4 Identical Girls in 1930

Causes of schizophrenia1
Causes of Schizophrenia

  • Biochemistry and Physiology

    • Too much or too little of certain chemicals in the brain

    • Chemicals do play a role but it’s hard to tell if these chemicals are the cause of Schizophrenia or the result of it

Mood disorders
Mood Disorders

  • We all experience mood swings

  • Major Depressive Disorder

    • People spend at least two weeks feeling depressed, sad, anxious, fatigued and agitated

    • Reduced ability to function and interact with others

Bipolar disorder
Bipolar Disorder

  • Individuals are excessively and inappropriately happy or unhappy

    • Manic Phase – person has extreme confusion, distractibility and racing thoughts

      • People may behave as if they need less sleep and their activity level usually increases

    • Depressive Phase – overcome with feelings of failure, sinfulness, worthlessness, and despair

Seasonal affective disorder
Seasonal Affective Disorder

  • Develop a deep depression in the midst of winter

    • Many of these people can be treated by sitting under bright fluorescent lights during the evening or early morning hours

Suicide and depression
Suicide and Depression

  • Not all people who commit suicide are depressed – not all depressed people attempt suicide

  • 1 suicide occurs every 16 seconds

  • Women ATTEMPT suicide more than men but. . .

  • Men SUCCEED in suicide more than women

Personality disorders
Personality Disorders

  • People generally do not suffer from acute anxiety nor do they behave in unexplainable ways

Antisocial personality
Antisocial Personality

  • Once referred to as sociopaths or psychopaths

  • Exhibit a persistent disregard for and violation of others’ rights

  • Treat people as objects – things used for gratification and then cast them aside

  • Getting caught doing something wrong does not seem to bother them

  • Guilt and anxiety have not place in their world

Drug addiction
Drug Addiction

  • Psychological Dependence – Users depend so much on the feeling of well being they get from the drug they feel compelled to keep using the drug

    • Alcohol, caffeine, nicotine, marijuana

  • Addiction – if the drug is not in the body the user will experience extreme physical discomfort

  • Withdrawals – state of physical and psychological upset in which the body and mind revolt against but eventually gets used to the absence of the drug