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May 9, 2013

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  1. May 9, 2013 A woman previously diagnosed with a psychological disorder was caught on videotape stealing a police car. The police officers used restrain, even after she threatened them with what appeared to be a weapon, and took her into custody unharmed. After the incident, her husband appealed to lawmakers to change the law that allows someone who has been diagnosed with a psychological disorder to refuse treatment. The woman’s family believed that the incident could have been avoided if they had been allowed to admit her psychiatric care. • Your Question to answer on a sheet of paper • Should the laws be changed? Under what circumstances should someone’s caregivers be able to force treatment?

  2. Psychological Disorders

  3. What are Psychological Disorders - Intro story page 447 • Difficult to draw a line between normal and abnormal behavior • Just because a person is different does not necessarily mean that he or she is suffering from mental illness

  4. Defining and identifying psychological Disorders • Popular ways of drawing the line between normal and abnormal behavior • Deviation from Normality • Whatever most people do is the norm therefore any deviation is abnormal • Majority is not always right or best • Adjustment • Normal people are able to get along in the world – physically, emotionally, and socially • When psychological problems become severe enough to disrupt everyday life it is thought of as an abnormality or illness

  5. The Problem of Classification • Psychological problems cannot be categorized the same way that physical illnesses can • Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) • Essential Features – characteristics that define the disorder • Associated Features – Additional features • Differential Diagnosis – how to distinguish this disorder from other disorders • Diagnostic Criteria – List of symptoms

  6. The Problem of Classification • DSM-IV • Often a person shows more than one disorder or may be experiencing other stresses that complicate the diagnosis • Axes – each axis reflects a different aspect of a patient’s case • Axis I – classify current symptoms into defined categories • Axis II – Describe developmental disorders and long standing personality disorders or traits such as compulsiveness, over-dependency, or aggressiveness

  7. The Problem of Classification • Axis III – describe physical disorders or general medical conditions that are potentially relevant to understanding or caring for the person • Axis IV – measurement of the current stress level at which the person is functioning • Axis V – describes the highest level of adaptive functioning present within the past year

  8. Anxiety Disorders • Anxiety is a general state of dread or uneasiness that a person feels in response to real or imagined danger • Anxious people have difficulty forming stable and satisfying relationships

  9. Generalized Anxiety Disorder • Anxiety can develop into a full fledged panic attack • Choking sensations, chest pains, dizziness, trembling, and hot flashes • People become so preoccupied with internal problems they neglect social relationships and have trouble dealing with family and friends

  10. Generalized Anxiety Disorder • Why are people anxious? • Some theorists stress the role of learning • Example: If a man feels very anxious on a date and the thought of another date makes him nervous he learns to avoid dates and never unlearns the behavior • Environmental Factors • Unpredictable traumatic experiences in childhood can allow people to develop an anxiety disorder

  11. Phobic Disorder • Phobia – when severe anxiety is focused on a particular object, animal, activity, or situation that seems out of proportion to the real dangers involved • Phobic individuals develop elaborate plans to avoid the situation • Phobias range from mild to extremely severe • One form of treatment is to provide opportunities for the phobic person to experience the feared object under SAFE conditions

  12. Phobia Poster!!!! YAY! • Pick a Phobia – any phobia will do • • REQUIREMENTS FOR POSTER • Define the phobia • Symptoms of the phobia • Impacts of the phobia – socially, privately etc. • Visual Representation of the phobia • Steps to overcome the phobia

  13. Panic Disorder • Panic Disorder – extreme anxiety that shows itself in the form of panic attacks • Panic Attacks • Victims experience sudden and unexplainable attacks of intense anxiety • Feel that doom is inevitable and he or she is about to die • Sense of smothering, choking, difficulty breathing, dizziness, nausea and chest pains • Last a few minutes but occur with no warning

  14. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder • Obsession – uncontrollable pattern of thoughts • Compulsions – repeatedly perform coping behaviors • Obsessive – Compulsive Disorder – puts obsessions and compulsions together

  15. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders • When is it a problem? • When thoughts and activities interfere with what a person wants and needs to do

  16. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder • PTSD – person who has experienced a traumatic event feels severe and long-lasting aftereffects • May begin immediately or develop later • Involuntary flashbacks or recurring nightmares • Not everyone who experiences traumatic events experience PTSD

  17. Somatoform Disorders • Conversion Disorders • Conversion of emotional difficulties into the loss of a specific physiological function • Can result in a real and prolonged handicap: person literally cannot feel or move anything

  18. Somatoform Disorders • Hypochondriasis – a person who is in good health becomes preoccupied with imaginary ailments

  19. Dissociative Disorders • Dissociative Disorder – significant breakdown in a person’s normal conscious experience – loss of memory or identity

  20. Dissociative Disorders • Dissociative Amnesia – attempt to escape from problems by blotting them out completely • Often results from a traumatic event

  21. Dissociative Disorders • Dissociative Fugue – amnesia is coupled with active flight to a different environment • Example: A Woman may suddenly disappear and wake up three days later in a restaurant 200 miles from home • She may repress all knowledge of a previous life • May last a few days or for decades

  22. Dissociative Disorders • Dissociative Identity Disorder (multiple personality disorder) • Eve White – 22 personalities • Sybil – 16 personalities • These cases are extremely rare and controversial • People diagnosed with this disorder usually suffered from severe physical. Psychological, or sexual abuse • Learned to dissociate themselves from stressful events by forgetting them

  23. Schizophrenia and Mood Disorders • Schizophrenics have difficulty using language to communicate • Will not remember the beginning of a sentence and then finish it with an unrelated thought • People with schizophrenia may withdraw from normal life and reach an irrational, fear-laden, and unimaginable ways that are difficult for others to understand

  24. Schizophrenia • What is Schizophrenia? • Problems with cognition but also emotions, perceptions and motor functions • Affects 1 in 100 people in the world • 1 in 10 if schizophrenia runs in the family • Involves confused and disordered thoughts and perceptions and the person has lost contact with reality • There is no single cause or cure

  25. Types of Schizophrenia • Paranoid Type • Involves hallucinations and delusions • Catatonic Type • Remain motionless for long periods • Disorganized Type • Incoherent language, inappropriate emotions • Remission Type • Symptoms are completely gone or still exist but are not severe enough

  26. Causes of Schizophrenia • Many Theories • Biological Influences • Genetics is involved • Identical Twins – If one twin develops schizophrenia only 42% of the twin’s siblings will develop it • 4 Identical Girls in 1930

  27. Causes of Schizophrenia • Biochemistry and Physiology • Too much or too little of certain chemicals in the brain • Chemicals do play a role but it’s hard to tell if these chemicals are the cause of Schizophrenia or the result of it

  28. Mood Disorders • We all experience mood swings • Major Depressive Disorder • People spend at least two weeks feeling depressed, sad, anxious, fatigued and agitated • Reduced ability to function and interact with others

  29. Bipolar Disorder • Individuals are excessively and inappropriately happy or unhappy • Manic Phase – person has extreme confusion, distractibility and racing thoughts • People may behave as if they need less sleep and their activity level usually increases • Depressive Phase – overcome with feelings of failure, sinfulness, worthlessness, and despair

  30. Seasonal Affective Disorder • Develop a deep depression in the midst of winter • Many of these people can be treated by sitting under bright fluorescent lights during the evening or early morning hours

  31. Suicide and Depression • Not all people who commit suicide are depressed – not all depressed people attempt suicide • 1 suicide occurs every 16 seconds • Women ATTEMPT suicide more than men but. . . • Men SUCCEED in suicide more than women

  32. Personality Disorders • People generally do not suffer from acute anxiety nor do they behave in unexplainable ways

  33. Antisocial Personality • Once referred to as sociopaths or psychopaths • Exhibit a persistent disregard for and violation of others’ rights • Treat people as objects – things used for gratification and then cast them aside • Getting caught doing something wrong does not seem to bother them • Guilt and anxiety have not place in their world

  34. Drug Addiction • Psychological Dependence – Users depend so much on the feeling of well being they get from the drug they feel compelled to keep using the drug • Alcohol, caffeine, nicotine, marijuana • Addiction – if the drug is not in the body the user will experience extreme physical discomfort • Withdrawals – state of physical and psychological upset in which the body and mind revolt against but eventually gets used to the absence of the drug