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Core 2-The Body in Motion. The skeletal System. Skeletal System. An anatomical reference system called directional terms is used to identify the location of bones.

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core 2 the body in motion

Core 2-The Body in Motion

The skeletal System

skeletal system
Skeletal System
  • An anatomical reference system called directional terms is used to identify the location of bones.
  • The starting point assumes that the body is in the Anatomical position; that is, a reference position where the subject is standing erect, facing front on and with palms facing forward. (Diagram next slide)
  • This enables us to locate a bone in reference to how it is relative to another part of the body.
anatomical position
Anatomical Position

Transverse Plane

Frontal (Coronal) Plane

Sagittal Plane

directional terms defined
Directional Terms Defined
  • Superior-towards the head; for example, the chest is superior to the hips.
  • Inferior- towards the feet; for example, the foot is inferior to the leg.
  • Anterior-towards the front; for example, the nose is anterior to the ear.
  • Posterior-towards the back; for example, the backbone is posterior to the heart.
  • Medial-towards the midline of the body; for example, the big toe is on the medial side of the foot.
  • Lateral-towards the side of the body; for example, the little toe is on the lateral side of the foot.
  • Proximal- towards the body’s mass; for example, the shoulder is proximal to the elbow.
  • Distal- away from the body’s mass; for example, the elbow is distal to the shoulder.
skeletal system introduction
Skeletal System Introduction
  • The adult human skeleton has 206 bones. They range in shape and size, a feature that allows them to perform specialised functions.
  • Functions of bones:
  • Protection to vital organs, for example the cranium and ribs.
  • Support framework for the body
  • Movement-site of muscle attachment
  • Storage- minerals, for example calcium
  • Production of Red Blood Cells and White Blood Cells
skeletal system introduction1
Skeletal System Introduction
  • The skeleton is divided into two (2) major portions: The axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton.
  • Axial skeleton-consists of the bones of the skull, the vertebral column and the rib cage.
skeletal system introduction2
Skeletal System Introduction

2. Appendicular skeleton-consists of the bones of the upper and lower limbs and the bony girdles that support them on the body trunk.

Pectoral girdle

types of bone
Types of Bone
  • There are five (5) types of bone-long, short, flat, irregular and sesamoid.

1. Long Bones- are hollow, tubular in shape and have along shaft. The ends of long bones form the articulating or connecting surfaces at joints.

- these bones can withstand heavy stress and are important in weight bearing.

- examples: humerus, femur, radius, tibia, ulna and phalanges.

2. Short Bones- are shaped like a cube and almost equal in length and width.

- examples: bones in the wrist (carpals) and ankle bones (tarsals)

3. Flat Bones- generally thin with a layer of spongy bone in their centre.

- they are usually broad in shape and have a smooth surface allowing a large area for muscle attachment.

-examples: scapula, cranial bones, sternum and ribs

types of bone1
Types of Bone

4. Irregular Bones- complex shapes, for example vertebrae

5. Sesamoid Bones- this type of bone is small and found in special tissue called tendons, where there can be more than usual pressure applied.

- examples: the patella

feature of synovial joints
Feature of synovial joints

Write notes on features from page 133-134 outcomes textbook. (Ligaments, tendons, synovial fluid and hyaline cartilage).