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Latina Women’s Health. Frances Ashe – Goins , RN, MPH Deputy Director - Office on Women’s Health U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). Racial/ethnic categories. 2000 Census

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latina women s health

Latina Women’s Health

Frances Ashe – Goins, RN, MPH

Deputy Director - Office on Women’s Health

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)

racial ethnic categories
Racial/ethnic categories
  • 2000 Census

Race – African American/Black; Hispanic/Latino; Asian American; American Indian & Alaskan Native; and Native Hawaiian & Other Pacific Islander

Ethnicity – Hispanic or Latino or Not Hispanic or Latino

Caucasian/White – majority population

(Note – the data in this presentation is not reflected of the new racial categories)

u s population
U.S. Population
  • 307 million people in the US, 2009 estimate
  • 15.8% are of persons of Hispanic or Latino origin
  • 50.7% are Hispanic/Latina female
leading causes of death all women hispanic american latina women
Heart Disease

All cancers

Stroke

Chronic lower respiratory diseases

Diabetes

Flu & pneumonia

Alzheimer’s disease

Accidents

Kidney Disease

Septicemia

Heart Disease

All cancers

Stroke

Diabetes

Accidents

Flu & pneumonia

Chronic lower respiratory diseases

Perinatal conditions

Chronic liver disease & cirrhosis

Kidney disease

Leading Causes of Death All women Hispanic American & Latina Women
health concerns for hispanic latina women
Health Concerns for Hispanic/Latina Women

Heart disease

  • 137.1 per 100,000; 34.4% of Mexican-American women have cardiovascular disease.

Stroke death rates

  • 36.4 per 100,000

Cancer Mortality Rates per 100,000

  • Lung – 13.1
  • Breast –15.8
health concerns cont
Health Concerns cont.

Maternal Mortality rates - 2000

  • 9.0 per 100,000 live births

Infant Mortality

  • 5.6 per 1,000 live births

Low birth rate (<5.5 pounds)

  • 6.4% (Puerto Rican 9.3% and Mexican 6.1%)
health concern sudden infant death syndrome sids rates per 1 000 live births
Health Concern: Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) Rates per 1,000 Live Births

Source: National Vital Statistics Report Nov. 7, 2003, 52(9): 69-77

health concerns cont1
Health Concerns cont.
  • HIV/AIDS – Hispanic/Latina women accounts for 24% of new HIV infections among Hispanic/Latino in 2006.
  • Diabetes Mellitus Deaths – 6%
  • Tuberculosis Rates – 24%
health concern tuberculosis tb u s 2001
Health Concern: Tuberculosis (TB): U.S., 2001

Source: CDC Reported Tuberculosis in the U.S., 2001. Atlanta, GA, U.S. Dept. of Health & Human Services, CDC, September 2002. Table 13. http://www.cdc.gov/nchstp/tb/surv/surv2001/pdf/T12and13.pdf

health concerns cont2
Health Concerns Cont.

Mental Health

  • Depression – 11% Hispanic/Latina reported being depressed.
  • Suicide – Hispanic/Latina 1.8/100,000

Violence Against Women

  • 53% Hispanic/Latina and least likely to be raped
risk factors hispanic american latina women
Risk Factors – Hispanic American, Latina women
  • High rate of obesity
  • High rates of breast and cervical cancers due to delayed diagnoses, lack of preventive screenings
  • Tobacco use high
  • Alcohol dependence prevalent
  • 30% of Hispanic/Latina women uninsured though many employed or live with someone who is employed
  • Further barriers to health care: language barriers, lack of transportation, immigration status
obesity epidemic
Among Mexican American women, 73 percent are overweight or obese, as compared to only 61.6 percent of the general female population.1

In 2003- 2004 Mexican American children, between the ages 6-11, were 1.3 times more likely to be overweight as Non- Hispanic White Children.

Obesity Epidemic

Source: OWH http://www.4women.gov/minority/hispanicamerican/obesity.cfm

what is obesity
What Is Obesity?

BMI (Body Mass Index) is a measure of body fat based on height and weight. People with a BMI of 25 to 29.9 are considered overweight. People with a BMI of 30 or more are considered obese.

what are the health effects of being overweight or obese
Heart disease

Stroke

Type 2 diabetes

High blood pressure

Breathing problems

Arthritis

Gallbladder disease

Some kinds of cancer

What Are The Health Effects of Being Overweight or Obese?

Being overweight or obese can increase your risk of:

risk factors for disease 1999 2000
Risk Factors for Disease 1999-2000

Physical Inactivity

  • 57% immigrants over 18 years are sedentary

Tobacco Use

  • 12.4 %

Alcohol Use

  • 49% abstained from using alcohol

Illicit Drug Use

  • 7.2% drug related deaths
vaccinations and screenings
Vaccinations and Screenings
  • Pneumococcal and Influenza – among adults 65 and older 30.5% Hispanic/Latina reported no vaccination.
  • Influenza – 55.6% Hispanic/Latina no vaccination in the past 12 months
  • Cervical cancer – 37% Hispanic/Latina not screened
screenings cont
Screenings cont.
  • Breast cancer – women over 40 years 33% of Hispanic/Latina women had not been screened in two years.
  • Blood pressure –26% Hispanic/Latina women had not been screened in the past 12 months
definition of lupus
Definition of Lupus
  • Widespread chronic autoimmune disease
  • Immune system attacks tissue and organs within the body
    • Joints, kidneys, heart, lungs, brain, blood, and/or skin
  • Immune system loses ability to distinguish between itself and foreign tissue
who has lupus
Who has Lupus?
  • There are more than 325,000 Americans diagnosed with Lupus--90% women
  • Limited awareness and knowledge of Lupus
  • Disproportionately affects young women of color (3 times more than whites);
  • More prevalent during the years of 15 to 45
symptoms
Symptoms
  • Fatigue, fever, pain, stiffness, swelling, redness
  • Common symptoms – painful swollen joints, unexplained fever, extreme fatigue, red rash or color on the face, chest pain with deep breathing, pale or purple fingers or toes
  • Additional – mouth sores, headache, depression, cognitive dysfunction, scalp hair loss, anemia, kidney disease
treatments
Treatments
  • There is no cure
  • Current therapies
    • Suppress the entire immune system
    • Reduction of inflammation
  • Medicines can treat symptoms according to organ involvement and severity of disease
  • Treatments are based on the individual patient
barriers to engagement
Barriers to Engagement

Lupus hits minority women

harder and more often?

I don’t believe it!

“I don’t have Lupus!”

If I don’t acknowledge it then I

won’t get it.

I’d rather feed my family than pay for a doctor’s visit.

I’m tired, I ache, I have a migraine…it’s just stress.

additional information
Additional Information:
  • Lupus Foundation of America.
    • Website: http://www.lupus.org
  • American College of Rheumatology.
    • Website: http:///www.rheumatology.org
  • DHHS/Office on Women’s Health
    • Website: http://www.womenshealth.gov
  • U.S. National Library of Medicine
    • Website:http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/lupus.html
strategies for the task ahead
Strategies for the Task Ahead
  • Initially connect to women on an an emotional level
  • Set up information so that the women can consume and digest information at the individuals pace
  • Give information through many platforms and touch points
key components of successful programs for minority women
Key Components of Successful Programs for Minority Women

Internalization of Cultural Sensitivity

  • Integrate cultural influences & language preferences of target community
  • Where is minority group located and concentrated?
  • Address issues of stigma
  • Hold events in accessible facility
  • Address racial/ethnic variations associated with the incidence, prevalence, morbidity and mortality of health condition/disease
key components of successful programs for minority women1
Key Components of Successful Programs for Minority Women

Recognition that Disease is not an Isolated Phenomenon

  • Address the societal issues (poverty, welfare, violence, crime) which affect community health
  • Identify and target behaviors that contribute to increased incidence and prevalence of health conditions
key components of successful programs for minority women2
Key Components of Successful Programs for Minority Women

Identification of Disparities between groups in obtaining health care

  • What gaps in services exist?
  • What services are needed?
  • Do different groups need different prevention efforts?
  • Are resources reaching all in the community?
key components of successful programs for minority women3
Key Components of Successful Programs for Minority Women

Honest and Frequent Evaluations

  • Conduct both impact and process evaluations
  • Outline clear and timely objectives to show achievement and improvement over time
  • Produce detailed work plans, quarterly reports, and final reports
  • Obtain input from program participants to determine participant benefit
key components of successful programs for minority women4
Key Components of Successful Programs for Minority Women

Building of partnerships

  • Partner with community organizations, local government agencies, faith-based organizations, social organizations, educational institutions, non-profits, sororities, etc.
  • Try to partner with groups that can attract as many women as possible from the target population
key components of successful programs for minority women5
Key Components of Successful Programs for Minority Women

Staff who Relate to the Target Community

  • This includes staff who have grown up in the community, look like members of the target community, or speak the same language as the target community
  • Staff must be knowledgeable about health condition of the program’s focus
  • Staff must have ability to communicate in culturally and individually sensitive manner
contact information

Contact information

DHHS-OWH

200 Independence Avenue, SW

Washington, DC 20021

202-690-7650; fax 202-401-4005

www.womenshealth.gov 1-800-994-9662